General Science Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter - 3 Diversity in Living Things and their Classification

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Important points to remember :
  1. In the living world, a lot of diversity is seen both in animals and plants. Every plant and animal is unique. We should all make efforts to conserve this diversity in the living world. 
  2. The scientist Carolus Linnaeus made the first scientific classification of plants. Initially, it was his method of classification that was used by all.
  3. Plants are classified on the basis of their height and the shape of stems, period of life cycle and habitat. 
  4. Animals are classified on the basis of the cell structure, vertebral column, method of reproduction and habitat. According to the size and height of their stems, plants can be classified into three types : trees, shrubs and herbs. 
  5. Plant structure can generally be divided into two parts - the stem which grows abovethe ground and the root which grows below the ground surface.
  6. The root, stem and leaves are the main parts of plants. From time to time, plants bear flowers for reproduction. 
  7. Flowers are transformed into fruits. Fruits have seeds. Seeds give rise to new plants


1: Match the pairs.
A Group                   B Group
a) Amphibian          1) A Monkey
b) Vertebrate.          2) A Snake
c) With scales.         3) A Frog

ANSWER:
a) Amphibian - A Frog
b) Vertebrate - A Monkey
c) With scales - A Snake


Question 2: Who is the odd one out ?
a) Fungus, mushroom, chrysanthemum, spirogyra
Answer : Chrysanthemum is the odd one out because it is a flowering plant whereas rest of them are non flowering.

b) Mango, banyan, palm, chick pea
Answer : Chick pea is the odd one out because it is a type of herb whereas rest of them are types of trees.

c) Grape, orange, lemon, hibiscus
Answer : Grape is the odd one out because it is a climber while rest of them are shrubs.

d) Sunflower, banyan, jowar, bajra
Answer : Banyan is the odd one out because it is a perennial plants whereas rest of them are annual plants.

e) Guava, radish, carrot, beetroot
Answer : Guava is the odd one out because it is a perrenial plant whereas rest of them are biennial plants.

f) Deer, fish, man, worms
Answer : Worm is the odd one out because it is an invertebrate whereas rest of them are vertebrates.


Question 3: What is the difference ?

a. Flowering Plants and Non-flowering Plants
Answer : 
  1. Flowering plant  have flowers and produce seeds and fruits. while non flowering plants do not produce flowers, seeds, and fruits 
  2. Flowering plants have structures like roots, stems and leaves. Non flowering plants may not have structures like roots, stems and leaves.
  3. Examples of flowering plant- Tulip and Mango
  4. Examples of non flowering plant - Ferns and Mosses

b. Trees and  Shrubs
Answer : 
1. Plants which grow very tall and have strong, hard stems or trunks are called trees. Plants which grow upto a medium height are called shrubs.
2. Plants have branches which are at some height above the ground. While shrubs have branches which are very close to the ground.
3. Examples of trees Mango tree, neem tree etc. examples of shrubs Oleander, hibiscus etc.

c. Vertebrates and Invertebrates
Answer :
1) Vertebrates have a backbone made up of vertebrae. Invertebrates do not have a backbone.
2) Vertebrates can be cold blooded or warm blooded. While invertebrates are always cold blooded.
3) Vertebrates have a well developed brain. Invertebrates do not have a well developed brain.
4) Example of vertebrates : frog and lizard
Example of invertebrates : Earthworm and snail


4: True or false ?
a) The snail is an aquatic animal.- False

b) Amphibians can live in air and in water.- False

c) The function of the brain is well developed in vertebrate animals.- True

d) The amoeba is a multicellular animal.- False

5: Write two names of each.
a) A flowering plant
b) A non-flowering plant
c) A tree
d) A shrub
e) A creeper
f) An annual plant
g) A biennial plant
h) A perennial plant

ANSWER:
a) A flowering plant- Rose and lotus
b) A non-flowering plant- Ferns and mosses
c) A tree- Mango and neem
d) A shrub- Lemon and henna
e) A creeper- Money plant and cucumber
f) An annual plant- Marigold and corn
g) A biennial plant- Carrots and parseley
h) A perennial plant- Asparagus.


Question 6: Write answers to the following.
a) What are the parts of a plant ?
Answer: The various parts of a plants are:

Roots: They absorb water and minerals from the soil and also anchor the plant firmly in the soil.Stems: Spread out branches to bear leaves, flowers and fruits, conducts water and minerals to different plant parts and performs functions of storage, support, protection and vegetative propagation.Leaf: They are called ‘food factories’ of a plant. They carry out photosynthesis, a process by which they synthesize their food.Flower:  In plants, flower is the functional unit concerned with the sexual reproduction of plants.Fruits: They have different shapes and contain one or more seeds.

b) What are the functions of the root ?
Answer : The functions of the roots are as follows:

they help in anchoring the plant to the soil. they also help in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil.

c) Why is it necessary to classify living things ?
Answer : Importance of classification:
i) Classification ensures uniformity. All life forms can be studied on a common platform.

ii) Classification ensures the study of interrelationship between various groups.

iii) It helps us to study many organisms at same time.

d) What are the criteria used to classify living things ?
Answer :  Organisms can be classified on the basis of similarities and differences in their structure, their organs and other characteristics.

e) Tell some characteristics of creepers.
Answer : Plants which cannot stand upright, and spread on the ground are called creepers. They show characteristics like:

their stem is very flexible, soft and green it grows rapidly with the help of a support

f) Explain the characteristics of herbs with two examples.
Answer : Herbs have the following characteristics: They grow upto the size 1-1.5 metres. They have green and flexible stems. They can live upto few months or upto two years.
examples of herbs include tulsi, parsley, mint etc.

g) On the basis of which criteria will you classify plants and animals ?
Answer : Plants and animals are classified on the basis of different characteritics:

Plants are classified on the basis of height shape of stems period of life cycle habitat
Animals are classified on the basis of: cell structure vertebral coloumn method of reproduction habitat

h) What protects the bodies of animals?
Answer : There are different mechanisms by which animals protect themselves from danger such as their predators:

Some organisms are covered by hard shells to protect themselves. For example, garden snail, tortoise etc. have a heard shell which they use to hide themselves under danger conditions. Star fish and porcupines have spines on their surface which they can use against their enemies. Organisms like chameleon and frogs can change their colours according to the surrounding environment. It is known as chamou flaging. Animals which are found in very cold regions have a thick layer of fat under the skin and thick fur to protect them from extreme cold conditions.


7: Draw the figure of a plant to show the parts, namely, the root, stem and leaves in it.
Answer :


Can you tell 
1) What are the similarities between a mango, ties between a mango,
a banyan and a tamarind tree ?
Answer : The Similarities between the Mango Plants, Banyan Plants, and the Tamarind trees are ⇒

1. All these tress have the thick leaves in which the upper epidermis is covered with the thick cuticles.

2. Like others plants, Bodies of All these tress are divided into two main parts, Leafs, Roots and Shoots.

3. All these trees have the strong roots which helps in the Nitrogen Fixation and others physiological process.

4. The fruits of all these tress are obtained in the months of the Summers, (like May, June).

5. All these tress have the medicinal importance, i.e. they are used for the Medicinal Purposes.

2) For how many years do crops like bajra, wheat, corn, radish, marigold live.
Answer : Bajra- It can be grown in areas of low rainfall and poor soils. It needs around 2-3 years to grow bajra.

Wheat- It can be grown in semi- arid conditions. It takes around 8 months to grow wheat.

Corn- The site for corn is sunny and wind protected areas. It germinates in 4 to 10 days.

Radish- It needs cool soil and 4-5 days to grow Radish.

Marigold- It requires 3 months to grow marigold.

3. To which part of plants are butterflies and insects attracted?
Answer : Petals are what give a flower its unique shape, and are often brightly colored toattract insects and critters, which unwittingly aid in the fertilization of ovules through pollination. These are the small, leaf-like parts growing at the base of the petals

4) What is the chain of bones in the centre of our back called?
Answer : The backbone, or 'spine', is a chain of bones called 'vertebrae' that connect the head to the hipbone. Separating each of the vertebrae is a small cushion called a 'disk'. The backbone holds the body and head upright.

5) What are the different criteria used to classify animals?
Answer : Every organism can be classified at 7 different levels - kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genusand species. Each level contains organisms with similar characteristics.