Questions & Answers for Class 6 Science Chapter 4 - Disaster Management

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Important points to remember :
  1. A sudden event that causes large scale damage to life, property and social aspects of a nation or society is called a distaster.
  2. A sudden calamity is known as a ‘disaster’. 
  3. Disasters can be man-made or natural.
  4. Alertness and immediate action are necessary on such occasions. 
  5. Effective disaster management and use of remedial measures cane help reduce the losses. 
  6. Every person should know about safety precautions and first aid.
  7. Community participation and disaster management are closely related. Taking steps to prevent disasters, making plans to face disasters and developing the capacity for that, is called disaster management.
  8. To prevent or reduce damage caused by natural or man-made disasters, emergency planning and management is required.


1. What are the emergency contact numbers of the following ?
a) Police Control Room
b) Fire brigade
c) Ambulance
d) National level single emergency number for disaster relief.

Answer :
a) you should be dialled 100 for Police control room.
b) you should be dialled 101 for Fire brigade.
(c) should be dialled 102 for Ambulance.
(d)  should be dialled 108 for National level single emergency number for disaster relief.



2: What first aid will you provide in the following situations?
(a) Dog bite
(b) Scratches/ bleeding
(c) Burns/scalds
(d) Snakebite
(e) Sunstroke

Answer :
a) Dog bite : Following first aid should be provided for dog bite: A dog bite wound must be very thoroughly cleaned, first with soapy water and then with an antiseptic.
If this is not done, the bite might lead to rabies. Cover the wound with a bandage.
See a doctor immediately

b) scratches/bleeding: Clean the wound with cotton soaked in antiseptic lotion. Apply bandage or antiseptic lotion and wrap with a bandage In case of heavy bleeding, tie a handkerchief above the wound to stop bleeding.

c) burns/scalds: Pour plenty of cold water immediately over it. Apply an anti-burn ointment.

Immediate home remedies:
Apply baking soda mixed with water
Apply the paste of turmeric and milk
Apply the paste of raw potato

In case clothes of a person catch fire, cover the person with a blanket and make the person roll over the ground in order to put out the fire.

Remove the burnt clothes that are not sticking to the body. Give him plenty of water to drink. Apply anti-burn ointment on the burn.

​d) snake bite: Keep the person calm and restrict any movement. Do not make him eat or drink anything. Tightly tie a handkerchief above the bite to prevent the poison from spreading and reaching the heart or the nervous system. Seek medical attention immediately.

​e) sunstroke: Make the person sit in the shade or a cool place. Cover the body with cool damp sheets. Make the person drink plenty of water or liquids. Apply cooling measures like ice towels.


3: Write the causes of the following :
(a) Floods
(b) Forest fires
(c) Land slides/building collapse
(d) Storms
(e) Earthquakes

Answer :
Floods:
  1. It may occur due to heavy rainfall that leads to overflow of water from the water bodies. Sudden melting of huge amount of ice at mountain tops can lead to flood in the regions nearby to mountains.
  2. Cloudburst can lead to flood.​

b) forest fires:
Answer : Natural calamities like lightning strikes falling on the trees of a forest. Man made activities like smoking, setting thermal factories or campfires near the forest area, etc.

c) Landslide/building :
Answer : collapse can occur due to following reasons: Earthquake can cause landslide and building collapse. Volcanic eruption can cause landslide. Usage of poor quality material for construction of building can lead to its collapse. Mining and weathering can cause landslides.

d) Storms :
Answer : Storms can occur either naturally or due to ecological imbalance occuring due to various human activities. Great damage in the storm affected region. Tremendous losses to life and property. Disruption of electric supply. Disruption of transport and communication.

e)  Earthquakes :
Answer : It can occur due to following reasons: Volcanic eruption. Meteors falling on the Earth’s surface. Underground explosions. For example, underground nuclear tests. Collapsing structures such as mines etc.​ Mining and construction of big dams.

Effects of earthquake
1) Destruction of infrastructure, i.e., buildings, bridges, roads, railway tracks, etc.
2) Change in the direction of the flow of rivers.
3) Huge loss of life and property.


4: Answer the following questions.
a) What is meant by disasters ?
Answer : A sudden happening that causes enormous damage to life, property and social aspects of a nation or society is called a disaster.

b) What are the different types of disasters
Answer : Disasters are of two types:
Man-made disasters: These disasters are the result of technological or human hazards. Examples of man-made disasters are road accidents, forest fires, collapsing of building due to usage of poor quality materials, etc.

Natural disasters: There are due to imbalance occurring in nature various environmental factors. Examples of natural disasters are earthquakes, volcanic eruption, etc.

c) What is meant by disasters management.
Answer : Disaster management is the strategy and course of action to be executed at the time of any disaster to save as much life as possible.

d) Which are the main components of disaster management?
Answer : Main components of disaster management are:
  1. Preparation: A plan is created to minimise the damage if a disaster occurs.
  2. Redemption: It is the plan to minimise the damage to the society and country.
  3. Preparedness: A plan is chalked out to get quick response from public and administration.
  4. Impact of disaster: Intensity of disaster and disaster management are reviewed.
  5. Response: This stage deals with providing immediate response after an incident has occurred.
  6. Resurgence: It is an important link between emergency measures and national progress. It includes the steps which are required for the welfare and rehabilitation of the nation.
  7. Restoration: It is an important link between measures after disaster and national development. 


5: Find out about the work of a ‘Sarpa-mitra’.
Answer : Sarpamitra means friend of snake that protects and safeguards snakes. They also demonstrate to people the various aspects of snakes and snake bites, what precautions and first-aid should be given in case of snake bite and the general idea of how to classify the snakes into poisonous and non-poisonous.


6: Find out what a first aid kit/box contains.
Answer : First aid box should contain the following things:
  1. First-aid manual Sterile gauze pads of different sizes
  2. Adhesive tape
  3. Adhesive bandages in several sizes
  4. Elastic bandage
  5. Antiseptic Soap, Antibiotic ointment. Antiseptic solution (like hydrogen peroxide) Hydrocortisone cream (1%)
  6. Extra prescriptio
  7. Alcohol wipes or ethyl alcohol
  8. Thermometer
  9. Flashlight and extra batteries
  10. A blanket 
  11. Mouthpiece for administering CPR (can be obtained from your local Red Cross)
  12. List of emergency phone numbers