Class 11 biology chapter 9 Morphology of Flowering Plants Textbook Solutions

Maharashtra Board Class 11 biology chapter 9 Morphology of Flowering Plants Textbook Solutions

Maharashtra state board Biology Textbook Solutions for Class 11 are very important and crusial that helps the students in understanding the hard topics and helps them in the preparation of class 11 board examination as well as verious compititive entrance examinations also. Studying the answers to the questions in the Biology textbook will check your understanding of a particular topic and helps you determine your strengths and weaknesses.

Class 11 Biology textbook Solutions for Class 11, Biology  Chapter 9 Morphology of Flowering Plants maharashtra state board are provided here with simple step-by-step  detailed explanations. These solutions for Morphology of Flowering Plants are very popular among Class 11 students for biology chapter 9  Morphology of Flowering Plants Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for compititive exams like NEET, CET abd verious medical entrance examination also. All questions and answers are taken from the class 11 Biology textbook, Bjology Textbook Solutions of Class  11 Biology Chapter 9 are provided here for you for without any charge its free for you. All Biology textbook Solutions for class 11. Solutions for class 11 Biology subject, These biology textbook solutions are prepared by   experts in the field and are 100% accurate for you.

1. Choose correct option
A. Which one of the following will grow 
better in moist and shady region?
 a. Opuntia
 b. Orchid
 c. Mangroove
 d. L otus

B. A particular plant had a pair of leaves at each node arranged in one plane. What is the arrangement called?
a. Alternate phyllotaxy
 b. Decussate phyllotaxy
 c. Superposed phyllotaxy
d. Whorled phyllotaxy

C. In a particular flower the insertion of floral whorls was in such a manner, so the ovary was below other three whorls, but its stigma was taller than other three whorls. What will you call such flower?
 a. Hypogynous
 b. Perigynous
 c. Inferior ovary
 d. Half superior - half inferior

D. Beet and Arum both store food for 
perennation. Are the examples for two 
different types?
 a. Beet is a stem but Arum is a root
 b. Beet is a root but Arum is a stem
 c. Beet is a stem but Arum is a leaf
 d. Beet is a stem but Arum is an inflorescence

2. Answer the following questions
A. Two of the vegetables we consume are nothing but leaf bases. Which are they?
Answer : Spinach and Cabbage are two commonly consumed vegetables by us with a leaf base. 

Explanation: The leafy vegetables are over flowing with nutrients such as calories, fat, dietary fibre, vitamin c, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, folate, manganese, vitamin K, iron, etc.
They are used in salads, along with rice, dhal, other spicy dishes, etc in the world.

B. Opuntia has spines but Carissa has thorns. What is the difference?
Answer :

  1. Spines are modification of leaves or part of leaves. Thorns are modification of branches.
  2. Spines occupy the same position as the leaves and bear a bud in their axil. Thorns are formed in the axil of the leaves in place of a bud.

C. Teacher described H ibiscus as solitary Cyme. What it means?
Answer : Solitary cyme of hibiscus is the type of inflorescence that the hibiscus flower possesses. When the stem or the axil of the leaf shows a 'single flower' that is joint on the pedicel, the flower is referred to as Solitary Cyme.

3. Write notes on
A. Fusiform root.
Answer : The fusiform root is swollen in
the middle and tapering towards both ends
forming spindle shaped structure. e.g. Radish (Raphanus sativus).

B. Racemose inflorescence
Answer : Growth of peduncle is infinite
or unlimited. Apical bud is free for continuous growth. Flowers are borne in acropetal succession. (Mature flowers at the base) Order of opening is centripetal.

C. Fasciculated tuberous roots
Answer : A cluster of roots arising from one point which becomes thick and fleshy due to storage of food is known as fasciculated tuberous root. These clusters are seen at the base of the stem. E.g. Dahlia, Asparagus, etc.

D. Region of cell maturation
Answer : Region of
cell maturation or differentiation is major
portion of root is developed by this region. The cells of this region are quite impermeable to water due to thick walled nature. The cells show differentiation and form different types of tissues. This region helps in fixation of plant and conduction of absorbed substances. Development of lateral roots also takes place from this region

E. Rhizome
Answer : It is prostrate dorsiventrally
thickened and brownish in colour. It grows
either horizontally or obliquely beneath the soil. Rhizome shows nodes and internodes, bears terminal and axillary buds at nodes. Terminal bud under favourable conditions produces aerial shoot which degenerates at the end of favourable condition Growth of rhizome takes place with lateral buds such growth is known as sympodial growth. e.g. Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Turmeric (Curcuma domestica), Canna etc. In plants where rhizomes grows obliquely, terminals bud brings about growth of rhizomes. This is known as monopodial growth. e.g. N ymphea, N elumbo (Lotus), Pteris
(Fern) etc.

F. Stolon
Answer : The slender lateral branch arising from the base of main axis is known as
stolon. In some plants it is above ground (wild strawberry). Primarily stolon shows upward growth in the form of ordinary branch, but when it bends and touches the ground terminal bud grows into new shoot and adventitious roots e.g. Jasmine, Mentha etc.

G. Leaf venation
Answer : Arrangement of veins and veinlets in leaf lamina is known as venation. Veins are responsible for conduction of water
and minerals as well as food. The structural framework of the lamina is developed by veins.

H. Cymose inflorescence
Answer : Growth of peduncle is finite
limited. Apical meristem terminates into flower. Flowers are borne in basipetal succession. (Mature flowers at the apex) Order of opening is centrifugal.

I. Perianth
Answer : Many times calyx and corolla
remain undifferentiated. Such member is
known as tepal. The whorl of tepals is known as Perianth.

If all the tepals are free the condition is
called as polyphyllous and if they are fused the condition is called as gamophyllous. Sepaloid perianth shows green tepals while petaloid perianth brightly coloured tepals. E.g. L ily, Amaranthus, Celosia, etc. It protects other floral whorls. Petaloid tepal helps in pollination and sepaloid tepals can perform photosynthesis.

J. Vexillary aestivation
Answer : The mode of arrangement of sepals, petals or tepals in a flower with respect to the members of same whorl is known as aestivation. Corolla is butterfly shaped and consists of five petals. Outermost and largest is known as standard or vexillum, two lateral petals are wings and two smaller fused forming boat shaped structures keel. e.g Pisum sativum.

K. Axile placentation
Answer : Placentation : The mode of arrangement of ovules on the placenta within the ovary is placentation. Ovules are placed on the central axis of a multilocular ovary. e.g. Chinarose, Cotton; etc

4. Identify the following figures and write down the types of leaves arrangement.

Answer : First one is Opposite. In this phyllotaxy two leaves arise from one node.

Second is Alternate. In this, one leaf arise from one node

Third is whorled. In this, more than two leaves arise from one node.

5. Students were on the excursion to a botanical garden. They noted following observation. Will you be able to help 
them in understanding those conditions?

A. A wiry outgrowth was seen on a plant arising from in between the leaf and stem.
Answer :  Buds are wiry outgrowth seen on a plant arising from in between the leaf and stem. Bud leads to the formation of the plant once it is accumulated with the nutrients from the soil. The main aspect is to initiate the process of new cell formation in young seeding at the tips of root and shoots which ultimately leads to forming the buds. The apical meristems help in increasing the height and length of the plant.

B. There was a green plant with flat stem, 
but no leaves. The entire plant was covered by soft spines.
Answer : The cactus is the plant with flat stem, but no leaves. The entire plant was covered by soft spines.

Explanation: They are basically desert growing plants. They are nutrient-rich. They grow better in dry arid conditions.

They are found with special habitat, they absorb the water content in the rainy season which helps them to use in dry arid condition.

C. Many obliquelyx roots were given out from the lower nodes, apparently for extra support.
Answer : Many obliquelyx roots were given out from the lower nodes, apparently for extra support are Stilt roots which is modification of adventitious root for mechanical support.

D. Many plants in the marshy region had 
upwardly growing roots. They could be better seen during low tide.
Answer : They are pneumatophores which are also called as breahing roots. In marshy and swampy regions the soil is always water logged due to which the mineral consumption of the plant suffers . Therefore for respiration these conical projections appear around the trunk which are vertically upwards.

E. A plant had leaves with long leaf apex, which was curling around a support.
Answer : Long leaf apex which was curling around a support is known as lenticels. 

Explanation: The lenticels provides the support to plant and help in plant growth. These curling are good to see and form the best outlook. They must not be over watered to maintain the structure.

The curling leaves can be because many problems like insect damage, disease etc. Tendrils are specialized leaves and thread like shape mainly found in curling plant.

F. A plant was found growing on other 
plant. Teacher said it is not a parasite. It exhibited two types of roots.
Answer : Epiphyte, also called air plant, any plant that grows upon another plant or object merely for physical support. Epiphytes have no attachment to the ground or other obvious nutrient source and are not parasitic on the supporting plants.

G. While having lunch onion slices were 
served to them. Teacher asked which part of the plant are you eating?
Answer : it is an underground stem. Explanation: onion is a group of leaves and the roots are under the onions and the green leaves can be found on the upper side of onion.

H. Students observed large leaves of coconut and small leaves of Mimosa. Teacher asked it what way they are similar?
Answer : The large leaves leaves of coconut and small leaves of Mimosa is observed by the student. Both are included in the kingdom plantae. Both leaves are known to perform the process of photosynthesis. When the leaves are viewed under the microscope, both contains the stomata and chloroplast. The cell wall is present around the cells present in the leaves.

I. Teacher showed them Marigold flower and said it is not one flower. What the teacher meant?
Answer : It means this flower contains both the sex, male as well as female. Bisexual plants have both reproductive structures.

Explanation: Flower’s male part is stamens and female reproductive structure , an ovary are known as Hermaphroditic.
Bisexual flowers can’t reproduce with themselves for reasons.
They still need other flowers to reproduce with, and still need bees to carry the pollen back and forth and the process is called pollination. But their bisexuality means they can be both givers of pollen and receptacles for it.

J. Students cut open a Papaya fruit and 
found all the seeds attached to the sides. 
Teacher inquired about the possible placentation of Papaya ovary.
Answer : Parietal placentation
Explanation: When fruit is fromed ovules are developed into seeds . Ovules are attached to the inner wall of unilocular ovary.

6. Match the following 

Answer :
1 - C. Axial
2 - E. Parietal
3 - Marginal
4 - Basal
5. Free Central

8. Differentiate with diagramatic representation.
A. Racemose and cymose infloresance
Answer : Racemose : Growth of peduncle is infinite or unlimited. Apical bud is free for continuous growth. Flowers are borne in acropetal succession. (Mature flowers at the base) Order of opening is centripetal.

Cymose : Growth of peduncle is finite limited. Apical meristem terminates into flower. Flowers are borne in basipetal succession. (Mature flowers at the apex) Order of opening is centrifugal.

B. Reticulate and parallel venation
Answer : The orientation of veins is parallel to one another in parallel venation, but in reticulate venation, the veins produce a network or web-like structure. Parallel venation is seen monocot plants like banana, bamboo, wheat, maize, etc. Reticulate venation is seen in dicot plants like mango, hibiscus, ficus, etc.

C. Tap root and Adventitious roots
Answer : The main root (primary root) with other minor side roots, which grow deep into the soil is called Taproot. While the fine, thick hairs like structure, that spread sideways in all the directions is called Fibrous or Adventitious root. Taproot arises from the radicle (embryonic part) of the plants, but the Fibrous root grows from the stem and leaves rather from the radicle.

Examples of plants with tap roots are carrot, reddish, beets, etc. On the other hand onion, grass, wheat, coconut palm are the examples of the fibrous roots or adventitious root system.