Impotant Questions class 12 Biology Chapterwise | Maharashtra board

To do well in any exam, you need to plan and manage your time well. The concentration with which you study for the given amount of time is another important factor which is to be considered while you prepare for your exam. I’ll suggest you following tips to prepare for the exam well and hopefully, get 1st rank in your class.
The subject biology intends to give students understanding, and appreciation of the vast diversity of living beings, their special adaptations to their environments and evolutionary relationships.

Here are the Most Important Biology Questions Class 12 New syllabus 

Chapter 1 : Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants
  1. Describe the process of double fertilization.
  2. Explain the stages involved in the maturation of microspore into male gametophyte.
  3. Explain the development of dicot embryo.
  4. Draw a labelled diagram of the L.S. of anatropous ovule and list the components of embryo sac and mention their fate after fertilization.
  5. Describe three devices by which cross pollination is encouraged in Angiosperms by avoiding self pollination.
  6. How polyembryony can be commercially exploited ?
  7. What is the function of filiform apparatus ?
  8. Define megasporogenesis. 
  9. What is hydrophily ?
  10. Name the layer which supplies nourishment to the developing pollen grains.
  11. Define parthenocarpy.
  12. Are pollination and fertilization necessary in apomixis ?
  13. Even though each pollen grain has 2 male gametes, why atleast 20 pollen grains are required to fertilize 20 ovules.

Chapter 2 : Reproduction in Lower and Higher Animals
  1. Explain the following parts of male reproductive system along with labelled diagram showing these parts-Testis, vasa deferentia, epididymis, seminal vesicle, proastate gland and penis.
  2. Describe female reproductive system of human. 
  3. Describe the process of fertilization.
  4. Explain the process by which zygote divides and redivides to form the morula.
  5. Describe the structure of blastula.
  6. Explain the histological structure of ovary in human.
  7. Describe the various methods of birth control to avoid pregnancy.
  8. What are the goals of RCH programme.
  9. Which hormones are involved in parturition?
  10. Write a note on IVF

Chapter 3 : Inheritance and Variation
  1. What is dihybrid cross? Explain with suitable example and checker board method.
  2. Explain with suitable example an independent assotrment.
  3. Define test cross and explain its significance.
  4. What is parthenogenesis? Explain the haplo-diploid method of sex determination in Honey bee.
  5. With the help of neat labelled diagram, describe the structure of chromosome. 
  6. What is cris-cross inheritance? Explain with suitable example. 
  7. Describe the different types of choromosomes.
  8. What is linkage? How many linkage groups do occur in human being? 
  9. Write note on –PKU 
  10. Compare - X-chromosome and Y-chromosome. 
  11. Explain the chromosomal theory of inheritance.
  12. Why law of segregation is also called the law of purity of gametes?
  13. Write a note on pleiotropy.

Chapter 4 : Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  1. Explain the process of DNA replication.
  2. Describe the process of transcription in protein synthesis.
  3. Describe the process of translation in protein synthesis.
  4. Describe the ‘Lac-operon’.
  5. Write short note on DNA packaging in eukaryotic cell.
  6. Enlist the characteristics of genetic code.
  7. Write a note on applications of DNA finger printing.
  8. Explain the role of lactose in ‘Lac Operon’.
  9. Write a note on Human genome project (HGP).
  10. Define term- codon and codogen.
  11. What is degeneracy of genetic code?
  12. Which are the nucleosomal 'core' histones?

Chapter 5 : Origin and Evolution of life
  1. Would you consider wings of butterfly and bat as homologous or analogous and why?
  2. What is adaptive radiation? Explain with suitable example.
  3. By talking industrial melanism as one example. Explain the concept of natural selection.
  4. Describe the Urey and Millers experiment.
  5. What is Isolation? Describe the different types of reproductive Isolatons.
  6. What is Genetic variations? Explain the different factors responsible for genetic variations.
  7. Write a note on Genetic drift.
  8. Enlist the different factors that are responsible for changing gene frequency.
  9. Draw a graph to show that natural selection leads to disruptive change.
  10. Give the significance of fossils.
  11. Write the objections to Mutation theory of Hugo de vries.
  12. Define the following terms-
a. Gene pool
b. gene frequency
c. Organic evolution
d. Population
e. Speciation

Chapter 6 Plant Water Relation
  1. Describe structure of root hair.
  2. Write on journey of water from soil to xylem in roots.
  3. Explain cohesion theory for translocation of water.
  4. Write on the mechanism of opening and closing of stoma.
  5. What is hydroponics? How is it useful in identifying the role of nutrients?
  6. Explain the active absorption of minerals.
  7. Write on macro- and micro nutrients required for plant growth.
  8. Distinguish between a) Osmotic pressure and turgor pressure b) Diffusion and osmosis.
  9. Enlist macronutrients and micronutrients required for plant growth
  10. Define and or explain the terms: Osmosis, diffusion, plasmolysis, imbibition, guttation, transpiration, ascent of sap, active absorption, DPD, turgor pressure, water potential, wall pressure, root pressure.
  11. Describe mechanism for absorption of water. 
  12. Discuss theories of water translocation. 
  13. What is transpiration? Describe mechanism of opening and closing of stomata.

Chapter 7 : Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition
Explain sigmoid growth curve with the
help of diagram.
2. Describe the types of plants on the basis
of photoperiod required, with the help of
suitable examples.
3. Explain biological nitrogen fixation
with example.
Write a short note on :
a. Differentiation b. Redifferentiation
2. Differentiate between Arithmetic and
Geometric growth.
3. Enlist the role and deficiency symptoms
of :
a. Nitrogen b. Phosphorus c. Potassium
4. What is short day plant? Give any two
5. What is vernalization? Give its

Chapter 8 : Respiration and Circulation
  1.  A man’s pulse rate is 68 and cardiac output is 5500 cm3. Find the stroke volume.
  2. Which blood vessel of the heart will have the maximum content of Oxygen and why?
  3. If the duration of the atrial systole is 0.1 sec and that of complete diastole is 0.4 sec, then how does one cardiac cycle complete in 0.8 sec?
  4. How is blood kept moving in the large veins of the legs?
  5. Describe histological structure of artery, vein and capillary.
  6. What is blood pressure? How is it measured? Explain factors affecting blood pressure.
  7. Describe human blood and give its functions
  8. Distinguish between : Open and closed circulation, Artery and vein.
  9. Write a note on blood plasma.
  10. Explain blood clotting in short.
  11. Describe pericardium.
  12. Describe valves of human heart.

Chapter 9 : Control and Coordination
  1. Draw the neat labelled diagrams of.
a. Human ear
b. Sectional view of human eye
c. L. S. of human brain
d. Multipolar Neuron
  1. Explain the Reflex Pathway with the help of a neat labelled diagram.
  2. Explain the role of hypothalamus and pituitary as a coordinated unit in maintaining homeostasis?
  3. What is adenohypophysis? Name the homones secreted by it?
  4. Describe in brief, an account of disorders of adrenal gland.
  5. Explain action of steroid hormones and proteinous hormones.
  6. Describe in brief an account of disorders of the thyroid.
  7. Which are the 2 types of goitre? What are their causes?
  8. Name the ovarian hormone and give their functions.

Chapter 10 : Human Health and Diseases
  1. Describe the structure of antibody.
  2. Write a note on Vaccination.
  3. What is cancer? Differentiate between bening tumor and malignant tumor. Name the main five types of cancer.
  4. Describe the different type of immunity.
  5. Describe the ill –effects of alcoholism on health.
  6. Differentiate between B-cells and T-cells.
  7. What are the symptoms of malaria? How does malaria spread?
  8. Write a short note on AIDS.
  9. Give the symptoms of cancer. Differentiate between antigen and antibody.
  10. Name the infective stage of Plasmodium. 
  11. Give any two symptoms of malaria.
  12. Explain the mode of infection and cause of elephantiasis.

Chapter 11 : Enhancement of Food Production
  1. What is tissue culture?Describe methodology of tissue culture & its applications.
  2. Explain steps involved in plant breeding. Name high yielding semi dwarf varieties of wheat and rice.
  3. Define SCP , its microbial source and application.
  4. Explain how suspension culture is prepared from callus.
  5. Explain mutation breeding.
  6. Name disease resistant and insect resistant varieties of crops.

Chapter 12 : Biotechnology
  1. Describe the steps involved in recombinant DNA technology
  2. What is bacteriophage?Explain lytic cycle of bacteriophage with suitable diagram.
  3. What is palindrome?
  4. What are transposons?Explain its 2 types.
  5. Name the enzyme responsible for delay in ripening of tomato fruit.
  6. Explain different bio safety issues which may arise due to genetically modified (GM) organism.
  7. What is bio-patent? Give two examples.

Chapter 13 : Organisms and Populations
  1. With the help of suitable diagram describe the logistic population growth curve.
  2. Enlist and explain the important characteristics of a population.
  3. Define Population and Community.
  4. Difference between Parasitism and Mutualism

Chapter 14 : Ecosystems and Energy flow
  1. Define ecological pyramids and describe with examples, pyramids of number and biomass.
  2. What is primary productivity? Give brief description of factors that affect primary productivity.
  3. Define decomposition and describe the processes and products of decomposition.
  4. Write important features of a sedimentary cycle in an ecosystem.
  5. Discribe carbon cycle and add a note on the impact of human activities on carbon cycle.
  6. Distinguish between upright and inverted pyramid of biomass 
  7. Distinguish between Food chain and Food web.

Chapter 15 : Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues
  1. Montreal protocol is an essential step. Why is it so?
  2. Name any 2 personalities who have contributed to control deforestation in our country. Elaborate on importance of their work.
  3. How BS emission standards changed over time? Why is it essential?
  4. How does genetic diversity affect sustenance of a species?
  5. Green house effect is boon or bane? Give your opinion. 
  6. How does CO cause giddiness and exhaustion?

How to score in Biology (Board Exam)
Answer : Every journey starts with a small step. Its necessary for you that you make a proper plan because planning is essential. If you have gone through all your subjects just once it wont help because something important here is you need to retain things in your mind . So the best thing you can do is to learn and revise them as much as possible. Try completing your portion before december like of you are having your boards in feb or march.
  1. Try solving as much previous years paper as you can.
  2. Set a target for each day and try achieving it like completing two chapters or so.
  3. Do one new chapter and revise one chapter everyday.
  4. Stay away from your cell phone and lappy.
  5. Make use of time properly.

Keep your focus on the gollowing topics 
Biology Important topics:
Genetics, Ecology & Environment, Cell Biology, Morphology of plants and animals, Basics of Biotechnology, Reproduction, Physiology of Animals & Plants.
Living World, Biological classification, Plant Kingdom, Morphology of plants, Anatomy of Flowering plant, Transport in Plants, Mineral Nutrition, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Plant Growth and Development, Digestion, Respiration, Body fluids and Circulation, Excretion, Locomotion and movement, and Nervous system and the Endocrine system, Ecology & Environment constitutes Genetics, Biotechnology etc will be fairly easy.