Kingdom Animalia : Defination, Classification, Phylum, Order

Kingdom Animalia : Classification, Phylum, Subphylum, Order - An Overview 

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Definition of Kingdom Animalia

Animals or in other languages ​​referred to as Kingdom Animalia are organisms that have complex cells or are commonly called multicellular eukaryotic organisms.

Read : Animal cell : structure & function


General Characteristics of Kingdom Animalia 

  1. Unlike the case with plants that have chlorophyll so they can make their own food by photosynthesis. Therefore, animals in the wild are required to find their own food to get energy which will be digested in the animal's body.
  2. This digestion process requires oxygen as the main supply and will later be released again in the form of carbon dioxide as a waste. 
  3. Animals have characteristics that make them different from other creatures where animal cells do not have cell walls.
  4. Animals have a lot of muscle cells as their movements and nerve cells that have the function to respond to every stimulus that comes. 
  5. Kingdom Animalia has the main characteristics as its identity, including the following:
  6. Many cells or multicellular living things. 
  7. Heterotrophic or can not make their own food. Requires oxygen to survive. Having muscle cells as movers and nerve cells to receive stimulation.
  8. Generally sexual reproduction, but some phyla also use asexual reproduction
  9. The form of the Adult is always diploid (2n)



Kingdom Animalia Classification


Kingdom Animalia consists of two groups namely
1. Invertebrate groups and
2. Vertebrate groups.

Kingdom Animalia : Defination, Classification, Phylum, Order

Invertebrates are a group of animals that do not have a backbone while vertebrates are a group of animals with a backbone.

The first we will discuss invertebrate groups first. This invertebrate group is divided into several phyla, including Porifera, Coelenterata, Plathyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropods and Echinoderms. For more details, see the review below.

Invertebrate

1. Phylum Porifera


Kingdom Animalia : Defination, Classification, Phylum, Order


  1. Multicellular animals that have a porous body with undeveloped tissue and have a skeleton and waterways.
  2. Are heterotrophic or obtain food in the water by entering the body through the pores.
  3. Life in the sea, usually attached to rocks or objects in the sea.
  4. Asexual reproduction by forming shoots, gemmules (internal shoots) and regeneration.
  5. Sexual reproduction by means of gamete formation.
  6. Porifera is divided into three classes based on their framing, namely Hexactinellida, Demospongiae and Calcaera.



2. Phylum Coelenterata
  1. Diploblastic multicellular animals in which the body has formed with a lot of tissue, in the form of polyps or medusae with tentacles that can sting, have a digestive cavity, a simple nervous system and do not have a system of excretion.
  2. Heterotroph
  3. Use tentacles to hunt for prey.
  4. The habitat is in the sea.
  5. Asexual reproduction by the formation of buds by polyps.
  6. Sexual reproduction by means of gamete formation by medusae or polyps.
  7. Based on the dominant form in the life cycle divided into three classes, namely Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa.



3. Phylum Platyhelminthes
  1. Aselomata triploblastik animals that have bilateral symmetry body shape are flat, have a nervous system, digestive system with one hole, do not have a circulatory system, respiration and excretion.
  2. Live freely in the ocean, fresh water, humid places or also live as parasites in animals and humans.
  3. Hemaphrodite
  4. Sexual reproduction in its own way or cross
  5. Asexual reproduction by fragmentation followed by regeneration.
  6. The classification is divided into three classes, namely Turbellaria, Trematoda and Cestoda.


4. Phylum Nemathelminthes
  1. Pseudoselomata triploblastik animals that have bilateral symmetry body shape resembling long elliptical with a cuticle and with a complete digestive system, circulatory system by fluid pseudoselom, does not have a respiration system and excretion.
  2. Live free or become a parasite
  3. Living in an area of ​​wet soil, the bottom of freshwater or open sea,
  4. Has parasitic properties in humans, animals and plants.
  5. Sexual reproduction
  6. Examples of parasitic Nemathelminthes are pinworms, filarial worms, roundworms, Trichinella worms and hookworms.


5. Phylum Annelida
  1. Triomlastic animal selomata
  2. Having a symmetrical bilateral body shape, having muscles, a complete digestive system, circulatory system, a ladder cord or a nervous system consisting of brain ganglia in front of the body close to the pharynx and nerve cords through segments of the body and having an excretion system.
  3. Does not have a respiratory system
  4. Hemaphroditic or gonokoris (male and female genitals separate from unequal individuals).
  5. Live freely on the seabed, fresh water, soil and humid places or become parasites on vertebrates.
  6. Sexual and asexual reproduction.
  7. It is divided into 3 classes namely, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Hirudinea.


6. Phylum Mollusca
  1. Tripomlastic selomata animals with bodies that have bilateral symmetry, soft textured, live in the high seas, freshwater and terrestrial.
  2. The body is composed of legs, visceral mass and mantle. Harvesting, the digestive system is complete with an open and closed circulation system.
  3. The nervous system consists of ganglions and nerve fibers. Respiration using gills or coat cavities. Excretion uses nephridia, reproduces sexually internally or externally and is diocese (male and female genitalia are present in different individuals) or monoseus (male and female genitalia in one individual).
  4. Differentiated into 3 classes namely, Gastropoda, Pelecypoda and Cephalopoda.


7. Phylum Arthropods
  1. Tripomlastic selomata animals with bilateral symmetry-shaped body, having legs and a broad body
  2. Living in a habitat that is free, becomes parasitic, commensal or symbiotic.
  3. The body is composed of head (head), thorax (chest) and abdomen (stomach). The exoskeleton (outer frame), the number of limbs varies, the sensory system is well developed, the nervous system of the rope ladder (the nervous system consisting of brain ganglia in front of the body close to the pharynx, and also the nerve cord through the body segments), the digestive system is complete, excretion through the malphigi tubules or a channel as an excretion system in arthropods (the process is assisted by certain excretion glands).
  4. Respiration using the gills, trachea or lungs with a book.
  5. Open circulation system.
  6. Diosseous or male and female genitalia are found in unequal individuals and sexual reproduction internally and undergoing ecdysis (removal of the cuticles) partially metamorphosed.
  7. It is divided into 4 classes based on body and leg structure, namely Arachnoidea, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Insecta.


8. Phylum Echinoderms
  1. Tripomlastic selomata animals with bodies that have bilateral symmetry with thorny body surfaces, and live freely on the seabed.
  2. Blunt and pointed spines have an ambulacral system, a nervous system in the form of a ring with a branched nerve center, a complete digestive system and no excretory system.
  3. Respiration using gills, circulatory system with body fluids.
  4. Dioseous and sexual reproduction externally and can also regenerate.
  5. It is divided into 5 classes namely, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea and Crinoidea.



Vertebrates

The second is the group of vertebrates, which are groups of animals with vertebrae (spine) that extend from the dorsal or back of the head to the tail.

Vertebrates are divided into several classes, including the following:

1. Pisces
  1. Pisces class is a group of animals that live in water. The outside of the fish's body is protected by an exoskeleton in the form of scales. 
  2. The Pisces class can breathe underwater thanks to the gills attached to its body.
  3. Pisces are poikiloterm animals or cold-nested animals that can adjust their body temperature to the temperature in the water as a habitat for their life. 
  4. The order of Pisces namely, Agnatha, Chondricthyes and Ostheichthyes.


2. Amphibians
  1. Amphibians are groups of animals that live in two places, which live in water or on land. 
  2. Examples of amphibians are frogs, toads, and salamanders. Amphibians breathe using their lungs and skin.
  3. Amphibians who live on land must also find water areas as well as a place to lay eggs.
  4. The larvae of amphibians are called tadpoles that look like small fish and live in water and breathe using gills.
  5. Amphibians are poikiloterm or cold-blooded animals. 
  6. Order of Amphibians namely Anura, Caudata, Gymnophiona.


3. Reptiles
  1. Reptiles are the first vertebrates that can adapt in arid regions. 
  2. This reptile is autotomy which is able to decide on certain body parts if it is in danger.
  3. Examples of reptiles are snakes, crocodiles, alligators, lizards, turtles. 
  4. Orders from reptiles are Squamata, Crocodilia, Chelonia and Rynchochepalia.


4. Aves
  1. Aves or what we usually refer to as birds is one of the classes of vetebrates. Having fur that covers the entire surface of the body.
  2. Bird feathers consist of phytoplumae (as sensory), plumulae (as an insulator) and also plumae (for flight).
  3. Birds are Homoitermic or warm-blooded animals. Birds have a Saccus pneumaticus (air bag) which functions as respiration while flying, regulating body weight when flying, hardening sounds and wrapping the internal organs so they are not cold when flying.

Aves class has 27 orders including: Apterygiformes, Struthioniformes, Rheiformes, Casuarriiformes, Tinamiformes, Podicipediformes, Gaviiformes, Spheniscitormes, Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Ciconiiformes, Anseriformes, Falconiformes, Galliformiformes, Gruiformes, Gruiformes, Staphyliforms, Staphyliforms, Staphyliforms, Staphyliforms, Staphyliforms, Staphyliforms, Cureiform Apodiformes, Trogoniformes, Coliiformes, Coraciiformmes, Piciformes and Passeriformes.


5. Mammalia
Kingdom Animalia : Defination, Classification, Phylum, Order


  1. Mammalia class is a class that has mammary glands (mammary glands) and hair that covers the entire surface of the body.
  2. Mammals consist of egg-laying mammals (ex: platypus), mammals with marsupials (ex: kangaroos, koalas) and vividparents that are viviparous or give birth such as cats, dogs, tigers, hyenas etc.).
  3. Order of the Mammalia Class namely: Carnivore, Monotremata, insectivore, pholidota, chiroptera, marsupialia, prosboscidae, artidactyea, Perissodactyla, Cetacea, Sirenia, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Pholidota, Edentata and Primates.


Kingdom Animalia Organ System

1. Order System
The Order System in Kingdom Animalia is divided into 2 types namely Exoskeleton and Endoskeleton.

An exoskeleton is an animal that has a framework outside the body whose function is to wrap and also protect the soft internal organs. Examples that exist in invertebrate animals are from the phylum Athropoda.

While the Endoskeleton is an animal that has a rangkan in the body. The endoskeleton is usually wrapped in skin and flesh. Examples are in vertebrate animals.


2. Respiratory System
Vermes group or worms breathe using their body surface. The respiratory system in insects is called the Tracheal breathing system.

While fish and other marine animals such as crabs, sea worms, shrimp, and starfish, the respiratory system uses gills.

Adult frogs breathe using their lungs and skin. While the frog larvae (tadpoles) breathe using external gills.

Unlike the case with salamanders, the outer gills remain until adulthood. Birds have lungs assisted by Saccus pneumaticus (air sacs).


3. Circulation System (Circulatory System)
The circulatory system that exists in multicellular living things can be divided into two parts, namely open blood circulation and closed blood circulation.

In open blood circulation, blood that flows does not always reside in a vein. While blood circulation is closed, blood flows in the blood vessel system.

Fish heart has two chambers, namely atrium and venticles. In Amphibia, the heart has three chambers, namely the right atrium, left atrium, and ventricles.

The heart of the Reptile has four chambers, but the bulkhead that is between the right ventricle and the left ventricle is incomplete.

In Aves and Mammalia, the heart has four chambers so that there will be no mixing of O2-rich blood with CO2-rich blood.


4. Reproduction System.
The reproductive system in Kingdom Animalia varies greatly. Some reproduce by Asexual, Sexual, and even both.

Reproduction by asexual means reproduction that occurs by division, budding and regeneration. Examples in animals amoeba, hydra and others.

While sexual reproduction is a reproduction that occurs by fusion between male gametes and female gametes so that fertilization occurs and produces new individuals. Fertilization is divided into two kinds, namely internal and external fertilization.

Internal fertilization is fertilization, the process is in the body, for example in animals cats, dogs, mice, rabbits, etc.

While external fertilization is fertilization whose processes are outside the body. Examples of animals are frogs, toads, and several types of fish.

Not only that, there are also organisms that reproduce by parthenogenesis (egg cells that develop into new individuals without being fertilized by sperm cells), for example in bees and ants.


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