Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Solutions

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 

Hello students today we are going to discuss about NCERT Solutions for Class 12 biology chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production textbook solutions. In this article we collected all the questions and answers of NCERT Biology Class 12 Chapter Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production with simple answers.
CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Notes would provide you with an effective preparation for your examinations.

So before starting the questions and answers of NCERT solutions Class 12 Biology chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production solutions just rewise it with the important points to remember ......

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Important point to remember
  1. Animal husbandry is the practice of taking care and breeding domestic animals by applying scientific principles. The ever-increasing demand of food from animals and animal products both in terms of quality and quantity has been met by good animal husbandry practices. 
  2. These practices include (i) management of farm and farm animals, and (ii) animal breeding. 
  3. In view of the high nutritive value of honey and its medicinal importance, there has been a remarkable growth in the practice of bee-keeping or apiculture. 
  4. Fishery is another flourishing industry meeting the ever-increasing demand for fish, fish products and other aquatic foods.
  5. Plant breeding may be used to create varieties, which are resistant to pathogens and to insect pests. This increases the yield of the food. This method has also been used to increase the protein content of the plant foods and thereby enhance the quality of food. 
  6. In India, several varieties of different crop plants have been produced. All these measures enhance the production of food. 
  7. Techniques of tissue culture and somatic hybridisation offer vast potential for manipulation of plants in vitro to produce new varieties.
  8. There are diffrent Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production.


1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Answer : Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding
and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers and is as much science as it is art. Animal husbandry deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poultry
farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching, selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustaceans
(prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals like bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle,
sheep and camels have been used by humans for products like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.

Breeding of animals is an important aspect of animal husbandry. Animal breeding aims at increasing the yield of animals and improving the desirable qualities of the
produce.

Dairy farming, selection of disease free and suitable breeds, proper and safe farm conditions, proper feed and water, and hygiene and health care are important components of poultry farm management.

Bee-keeping or apiculture is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for
the production of honey. It has been an age-old cottage industry. Honey is a food of high nutritive value and also finds use in the indigenous systems of medicine.

Apiculture, Dairy farming, breading of animals are the best Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production.


2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake
to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
Answer : Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for
human consumption. dairy farm management, we deal with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of milk. Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds in the
farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is very important.

For the yield potential to be realised the cattle have to be well looked after – they have to be housed well, should have adequate water and be maintained disease free. The feeding of cattle play important role in Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production should be carried out in a scientific manner – with special emphasis on the quality and quantity of fodder. Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking, storage and transport of the milk and its products.

Nowadays, of course, much of these processes have become mechanised, which reduces chance of direct contact of the produce with the handler. Ensuring these stringent measures would of course, require regular inspections, with proper record keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early
as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be mandatory.


3. What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal
breeding?
Answer : A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters
like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc., are said to belong to a breed.  When breeding is between animals of the same breed it is called inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds
are called outbreeding. To increase growth rate. Production of milk, meat, egg, wool etc should be higher.

Objectives of animal breeding
(i) To increase the yield of animals.

(ii) To improve the desirable qualities of the animal produce.

(iii) To produce disease-resistant varieties of animals.


4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which
of the methods is best? Why?
Answer : Animal breeding is the method of mating closely related individuals. There are several methods employed in animals breeding, which can be classified into the following categories:

When breeding is between animals of the same breed it is called inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds are called outbreeding.

Out-breeding : Out-breeding is the breeding of the unrelated animals, which may be between individuals of the same breed but having no common ancestors for 4-6 generations (out-crossing) or between
different breeds (cross-breeding) or different species (inter-specific
hybridisation).

Out-crossing: This is the practice of mating of animals within the same breed, but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations. The offspring of such a mating is known as an
out-cross. It is the best breeding method for animals that are below average in productivity in milk production, growth rate in beef cattle, etc. A single outcross often helps to overcome inbreeding depression.

Cross-breeding: In this method, superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed. Cross-breeding allows the desirable qualities of two different breeds to be combined. The progeny hybrid animals may themselves be used for commercial production. Alternatively, they may be subjected to some form of inbreeding and selection to develop new stable breeds that may be superior to the existing breeds.

Interspecific hybridisation: In this method, male and female animals of two different related species are mated. In some cases, the progeny may combine desirable features of both the parents, and may be of
considerable economic value, e.g., the mule

Artificial insemination. The semen is collected from the male that is chosen as a parent and injected into the reproductive
tract of the selected female by the breeder. The semen may be used immediately or can be frozen and used at a later date. It can also be transported in a frozen form to
where the female is housed. In this way desirable matings are carried.

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) :  is one such programme for herd improvement. In this method, a cow is administered hormones, with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and super ovulation – instead of one egg, which they normally yield per cycle,


5. What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?
Answer : Apiculture is the scientific method of rearing honeybees.

Bee-keeping or apiculture is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for
the production of honey. It has been an age-old cottage industry. Honey is a food of high nutritive value and also finds use in the indigenous systems of medicine. Honeybee also produces beeswax, which finds many
uses in industry, such as in the preparation of cosmetics and polishes of various kinds. The increased demand of honey has led to large-scale bee- keeping practices; it has become an established income generating
industry, whether practiced on a small or on a large scale.


6. Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.
Answer : Fishery is an industry devoted to the catching, processing or selling of fish,
shellfish or other aquatic animals. A large number of our population is dependent on fish, fish products and other aquatic animals such as prawn, crab, lobster, edible oyster, etc., for food. Some of the freshwater fishes which are very common include Catla, Rohu and common carp. Some of the marine fishes that are eaten include – Hilsa, Sardines, Mackerel and Pomfrets.

Fisheries has an important place in Indian economy. It provides income and employment to millions of fishermen and farmers, particularly in the coastal states. For many, it is the only source of their livelihood. In order to meet the increasing demands on fisheries, different techniques have been employed to increase production. For example, through aquaculture and pisciculture we have been able to increase the production of aquatic
plants and animals, both fresh-water and marine.


7. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
Answer : Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to
create desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better
yields and are disease resistant.

The main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are –

(i) Collection of variability: Genetic variability is the root of any breeding programme. In many crops pre-existing genetic variability is available from wild relatives of the crop. Collection and preservation of all the different wild varieties, species and relatives of the cultivated species (followed by their evaluation for their characteristics) is a
pre-requisite for effective exploitation of natural genes available in the populations. The entire collection (of plants/seeds) having all the diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection.

(ii) Evaluation and selection of parents: The germplasm is evaluated so as to identify plants with desirable combination of characters. The selected plants are multiplied and used in the process of
hybridisation. Purelines are created wherever desirable and possible.

(iii) Cross hybridisation among the selected parents: The desired characters have very often to be combined from two different plants (parents), for example high protein quality of one parent may need
to be combined with disease resistance from another parent. This is possible by cross hybridising the two parents to produce hybrids that genetically combine the desired characters in one plant

(iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants: This step consists of selecting, among the progeny of the hybrids, those plants that have the desired character combination. The selection process is crucial to the success of the breeding objective and requires careful
scientific evaluation of the progeny. This step yields plants that are superior to both of the parents (very often more than one superior progeny plant may become available). These are self-pollinated for
several generations till they reach a state of uniformity (homozygosity), so that the characters will not segregate in the progeny.

(v) Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars: The
newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield and other agronomic traits of quality, disease resistance, etc. This evaluation is done by growing these in the research fields and recording their performance
under ideal fertiliser application, irrigation, and other crop management practices.


8. Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Answer : Biofortification – breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins and
minerals, or higher protein and healthier fats – is the most practical
means to improve public health.
Breeding for improved nutritional quality is undertaken with the
objectives of improving –
(i) Protein content and quality;
(ii) Oil content and quality;
(iii) Vitamin content; and
(iv) Micronutrient and mineral content.


9. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and
why?
Answer : Apical and axillary meristems of plants is used for making virus-free plants. In a diseased plant, only this region is not infected by the virus as compared to the rest of the plant region. Hence, the scientists remove axillary and apical meristems of the diseased plant and grow it in vitro to obtain a disease-free and healthy plant. Virus-free plants of banana, sugarcane, and potato have been obtained using this method by scientists.


10. What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?
Answer : Micropropagation has a number of advantages over traditional plant propagation techniques:
  1. The main advantage of micropropagation is the production of many plants in short time.
  2. Micropropagation used to produce disease-free plants.
  3. It is the only viable method of regenerating genetically modified cells or cells after protoplast fusion.
  4. Micropropagation useful in multiplying plants which produce seeds in uneconomical amounts.
  5. Micropropagation often produces more robust plants - like seeds or cuttings.
  6. Some plants with very small seeds, including most orchids, are most reliably grown from seed in sterile culture.
  7. In small area we can produced large number of plants.



11. Find out what the various components of the medium used for
propagation of an explant in vitro are?
Answer : Tissue culture involves the use of small pieces of plant tissue (explants) which are cultured in a nutrient medium under sterile conditions. Using the appropriate growing conditions for each explant type, plants can be induced to rapidly produce new shoots, and, with the addition of suitable hormones new roots. The major components of medium used for propagation of explants in vitro are carbon sources such as sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids, water, agar-agar, and certain growth hormones such as auxins and gibberellins.


12. Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed
in India.
Answer : Sonalika (wheat), Jaya (rice), Pusa shubra (cauliflower), Pusa komal (cowpea) and Pusa swarnim (mustard) are the hybrid vareity of crop plant which have been produced in India.