What is Biotechnology | Scope | Application

In this section you will find general information about biotechnology, its applications and some of the techniques used by researchers around the world.

What is Biotechnology | Scope | Application


What is biotechnology?

Biotechnology has been defined as a multidisciplinary field in which agriculture, pharmacy, food science, forestry and medicine make extensive use of biology, chemistry and various processes. Probably the first Hungarian engineer to use the Biotechnology word was Carl Areki, in 1919.

The internationally accepted definition of biotechnology is as follows.

Biotechnology uses any technology that uses biological systems and living things or to create or generate products or processes for specific uses (Convention on Biological Diversity, Article 2. Terms of Use, United Nations. 1992).

Biotechnology consists of basic and applied research that integrates different approaches taken through the technology and application of biological sciences such as cellular, molecules, bioinformatics and applied marine microbiology. Research and development of biological components and functional foods for aquatic organisms, cellular and molecular diagnostics, as well as management of diseases related to aquatic, toxicology and environmental genomics, biological safety related to the cultivation and processing of marine organisms, and bio-safety. Quality management and control in freshwater, biofuels and laboratories.



Scope of biotechnology:

Biotechnology is used to improve the desired character in biological systems. Biotechnology is used whether it is resistance to crop diseases, drug production, excellent performance etc.

If the ability to endure adverse effects in one's life is found to be desirable. This character is transferred to the plants of agricultural crops so that they grow in low irrigation conditions. Thus, the efficiency and growth of the new plant increases compared to its ancestors. The same plant that does not tolerate drought conditions is drought tolerant after the implementation of the principles of biotechnology.

This is possible because the genes responsible for tolerating drought conditions in another life have been transferred to the genome of our desired culture. Therefore, our desired harvest is drought resistant and grows well.

Thus biotechnology includes life sciences (biology), technology of other disciplines (chemistry, physics, computer science, etc.) and engineering sciences.

Biotechnology is just as important as it is interesting to us because it is a part of our daily lives (it has been used for over 6000 years in the manufacture of bread and cheese) and it promises great progress in overcoming the great challenges of our time.


Types of biotechnology

Biotechnology is a science that has many branches of study. Everyone is in charge of a specific area of ​​application and is particularly beneficial for certain situations. Therefore, we will talk about the main types of biotechnology that exist.

As mentioned, there are many types of biotechnology, including:

Medical Biotechnology

Medical biotechnology is one that uses living cells and other cellular components to improve people's health.

One of the main uses in medical biotechnology is its use for the treatment of some diseases, understanding the biology of human cells, is different from others.

It is mainly used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products that contribute to the cure or treatment of certain diseases. All this, however, before studying cells, bacteria in others. Among other factors, vaccines and antibiotics are prime examples.

Agricultural biotechnology

Agricultural biotechnology is one of the crops and plants used to improve. In general, it focuses on the development and research of genetically modified plants, to improve their characteristics, including plants, making them resistant to weather and pests.

It contributes to the improvement of crops and the creation of sustainable agriculture; This leads to crop growth and reduction of pollutants.

Industrial biotechnology

Industrial biotechnology is a component that contributes to the creation of industrial components and the restoration of others through less pollutants.

It is basically in the manufacture of new ingredients used at industry level, such as alcohol, detergents and others. Where instead of changing the existing they improve their application by making it environmentally friendly. This will reduce its impact on environmental pollution.


Main applications and uses of Biotechnology 

Any type of biotechnology offers continuous advantages in its application. And that is that they solve a wide range of existing environmental problems and improve other processes. For example, when used in the pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical industries, it offers many benefits, as it can cure some ailments and even study others. In addition, it makes other drugs more effective and therefore their effect on the disease.

Moreover, when applied in industry, it greatly reduces the polluting effects. Some techniques are used, which contribute to the degradation of components such as plastics and others, which are of great benefit in reducing environmental pollution. Biofuels, on the other hand, are also factors that are conducive to reducing environmental pollution.

Undoubtedly, it is a tool that adapts to the environment in an adaptive manner and thereby creates measures and measures to help control the pollution of the environment and reduce it in the best possible way. It should be noted that not much is known about the types of biotechnology or the science itself. However, better satisfaction is expected.


Where We can use Biotechnology // Application of Biotechnology

Biotechnology is a form of science that is gaining popularity around the world, thanks to the benefits it is being used in many fields. So we can say that the field of biotechnology is very wide and on this occasion we will understand what are the areas where it is most often applied and its benefits are available in each of them.

Biotechnology is a science that is gaining more and more popularity, and the truth is that it is not the least, because in addition to many areas of application, they are offering different benefits in each of them.

The field of biotechnology can be classified into six main areas, according to its area of ​​use, which are: health, industrial, plant, environment, animal and food. So this time we are going to learn about the main area of ​​application and its importance in each of them.

Food sector
This technology plays a fundamental role in the food sector; Thanks to that, you will get a lot of health that is rich in nutrients and medicinal properties. In addition, it allows the production of large quantities of food and prolongs its useful life, which manages to reduce the drought of the population; Having more food meets the demand.

Pharmaceutical industry
The field of biotechnology in the pharmaceutical industry produces natural, synthetic and even semi-synthetic antibiotics. In addition, it allows to obtain insulin, vaccines and serums that help in the treatment of various diseases.

Environment
Another area of ​​use of this technology is in the environment; Thanks to that, it is possible to create biodegradable materials, purify wastewater, reduce and eliminate various pollutants that exist, as well as allow waste treatment. But this is not all, because the sole purpose of preserving the different species that exist in the world can also be used in this area; Something that is definitely beneficial.

What is Biotechnology | Scope | Application


Agriculture
Biotechnology plays a very important role in agriculture; There are many benefits to doing research in different ways. Among these benefits we can mention the following:
  1. Take plants and crops that are resistant to pests, insects and diseases.
  2. Herbicide tolerance.
  3. This allows for a healthy crop with high nutritional value and medicinal properties.
  4. Achieving tolerant crops to certain soil metals like aluminum.
  5. Develop and obtain genetically modified or transgenic crops.
  6. As can also be seen, the field of biotechnology is very wide, as it is commonly used in various fields of study;
  7. This is mainly due to the many benefits available in each of them. That is why its use has spread rapidly around the world.


Pharmaceutical production
In this sense, we are one of the contributors of biotechnology. The formation of penicillin found in can be mentioned and is used to treat infections from 1 to 11.


Industrial fermentation
Fermentation is a process used to make numerous products, among which we can shed light on the production of cheese, wine, beer, bread and other products.


Cloning
Although cloning is a controversial topic, it was an important discovery that could lead to a better understanding of the treatment of diseases and the functioning of the body.


DNA analysis
There are numerous applications that use DNA validation, we can say forensic criminology and paternity tests as a significant development of this tool of society.


Vaccine production
In most cases, vaccine production involves a biological process that aims to produce antibodies by interacting with the life of an animal.


Genetic Improvements
Genetic modifications have numerous applications, we can usually mention improvements to beef animals to increase meat and milk production, making vegetables resistant to pests.


Forensic
DNA analysis or DNA fingerprinting has made it extremely easy to determine the issue of paternity and has helped solve many crimes. Each person's DNA has a specific pattern that is used to identify their DNA. Today’s biotech products have become so sophisticated that they can even make DNA profiles from 1 ng samples!


Modern Biotechnology vs. Traditional Biotechnology

Traditional biotechnology

Traditional biotechnology is one of the many ancient ways in which living animals can be used to create new products or to improve existing ones. In its broadest sense, traditional biotechnology ranges from man to hunter to farmer. Humans as farmers collected and planted wild seedlings, and the best working strain for planting the next season was selected.

It took many years and sometimes generations for humans to acquire specific plant types as they discovered more plant types and traits or characteristics. Good taste and high productivity. Due to the pets of animals, ancient farmers used the same breeding techniques to obtain the desired characteristics in animals for generations.

Centuries ago, people mistakenly discovered that living cells always use natural processes. Although they had no scientific explanation for the process, the results they saw applied to their domestic lives. For example, they found that food matures in such a way that it changes its taste and content and is less likely to be destroyed. So, through a process called fermentation, the flour is fermented while the bread is made, the grape juice is turned into wine, and the milk kept in a bag made from camel's stomach is converted into cheese.

Through trial and error and then through technological advances, people learned to control this process and create large-scale biotech products. Advances in science have allowed the transfer of these technologies, mainly within the country, to industrial technologies and the search for new ones. Some examples of traditional biotechnology are selective breeding, hybridization and fermentation.


Modern biotechnology

Modern biotechnology is a series of techniques that involve the deliberate handling of genes, cells, and living tissues in a controlled way to alter genetic makeup or to produce new tissues. Examples of modern biotechnology include: recombinant DNA mechanisms (RDNA or genetic engineering), tissue culture, and mutagenesis.

Modern biotechnology began in 1953 with the discovery of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the passage of genetic information through generations. Thanks to Greg Mendel's previous discovery of genes (separate and distinct units transmitting traits in parents and children). These discoveries laid the groundwork for the transformation from traditional to modern biotechnology. In a controlled and less slow way compared to traditional biotechnology techniques, it was possible for an organism to make the desired changes in life through direct modification of its genes. These discoveries opened up the possibility of advances in technology and science (such as biochemistry and physiology), new applications of biotechnology that were traditionally unfamiliar.


Conclusion
So I hope you learned something new today. I really like the fact that biotechnology is split using colors, because it makes the whole thing easier to remember. There are different parts of research that can definitely be classified as separate sections of biotechnology and probably will in the future. Fortunately for us, there are still some colors.