What is Transgenic Animals? Give its Application - YB Study

What is Transgenic Animals? Give its Application

What are transgenic animals ? Give the application of transgenic Animals 

Answer :  

  1. It is now possible to carry out manipulations at genetic level to get the desired characteristics in animals.
  2. Transgenesis refers to the phenomenon of introduction of exogeneous DNA into the genome of an organism.
  3. The foreign DNA that is introduced is called as transgene.
  4. The animal whose genome is altered by adding one or more transgenes is said to be transgenic.
  5. Thus transgenic organisms are genetically engineered or genetically modified organisms, with a new heritable character.
  6. Transgenic animals are fertile and carry the transgene in its germ line.
  7. The animals used for transgenesis include rat, rabbit, pig, cow, goat, sheep, fist etc.
  8. Mouse is the animal of choice for transgenic experiments because they have short generation time.
  9. It produces more eggs, normal mouse produces 5-10 eggs, superovulated mouse can yield upto 40 eggs.
  10. More than 95% of transgenic aninmals are mice.

Methods of Transgenesis

a) Transfer of whole nucleus from a somatic cell of a donor into the enucleated egg of the recipient animal.

b) Transfer of a part of bisected embryo into the enucleated unfertilised egg.

c)Transter of chromosome or chromosomal fragments etc.

Application of transgenic animals.

  1. Transgenic animals have great benefits to mankind.
  2. Due to transgenesis their is improvement in quality and quantity of milk, meat, eggs etc.
  3. Study of diseases: Many transgenic animals help us to understand how genes contribute to the development of disease.
  4. With the help of these animals which acts as a models for human diseases like cancer, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimers disease etc. new methods of their treatment is possible.
  5. Vaccine safety : Transgenic mice are first to be used to test a newly discovered vaccine before it is used on human beings. Ex. Polio vaccine
  6. Bioreactors: By transgenesis the animals are genetically modified in such a way that they act as bioreactors.
  7. Such transgenic animals are useful to produce d-1-antitrypsin which used to treat emphysema.
  8. Similarly phenylketonuria (pKu) is being treat. In 1997 the first transgenic cow produced called 'Rosie.
  9. This cow produced human protein enriched milk (2-4 gms/litre).
  10. This is nutritionaly more balanced milk product than natural cow milk.
  11. Chemical safety testing : Transgenic animals with foreign genes are produced consequently the transgenic animals become more sensitive to toxic chemicals.
  12. These animals are exposed to toxic chemicals, toxicity testing in such animals gives fast result.

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