What is somatic embryogenesis ?

What is somatic embryogenesis

 What is somatic embryogenesis ?

Defination : Somatic embryogenesis is the process where plants or embryo is derived from single somatic cell or group of Somatic cells.

  1. Somatic  embryo are formed from plant cell that involved in development of embryos.
  2.  Different growth regulators are required for the somatic embryogenesis.
  3.  Somatic embryo are mainly produced in vitro using solid or liquid media Somatic embryo are mainly produced in vitro using solid or liquid media
  4.  Embryogenesis is a specialized  Mode of development by which fertilized egg through a series of pre-determined patterns of cell division and differentiation forms an embryos.
  5.  The embryo formed by somatic cell are called somatic embryos and the process by which somatic cell differentiated into embryos is turned as somatic embryogenesis. 
  6.  There are many plants in which somatic embryogenesis has been studied some of the examples are daucus carota, citrus sp, coffee sp and medicago sativa.
  7.  The somatic embryos may arises directly from the explants or indirectly after callusing (callus formation)
  8.  Somatic embryogenesis system of arabidopsis, whose  Complete genome has been sequence is being develop as model system to study the genetics and molecular biology of embryogenesis.
  9.  Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis are explants,  genotypes, growth regulators, nitrogen source,  polyamines, oxygen concentration, subculture etc.

Somatic embryogenesis can be carried out by 2 ways

1. Direct embryogenesis :  Direct embryogenesis occurs when embryos are started directly from explained tissue creating an identical clone.

2. Indirect embryogenesis :  Indirect embryogenesis occurs when explant produce undifferentiated cells or differentiated into plant tissue such as leave stem and roots.