Environmental management Class 10 Exercise with Answers Pdf

Environmental management Class 10 Exercise with Answers Pdf :

Students can refer to the following Chapter 4 Environmental management Class 10 Exercise with Answers provided below based on the latest curriculum and examination pattern issued by Maharashtra state board. Our subject experts have prepared these  questions and answers for class 10 students. which covers all topics from your textbook so that students can assess themselves on all important topics and thoroughly prepare for their board exams.

We have provided below  Environmental management class 10 notes Science with answers which will help the students to go through the entire syllabus and and practice textbook questions and answers provided here with solutions. You can download in Pdf Format and score high in your board exam you should go thorough all Chapter 4 Environmental management Class 10 solutions provided below so that you are able to get more marks in your exams.


Important points to Remember about  Chapter 4 Environmental management

  1. Environmental conservation is protection, preservation, management, or restoration of the natural environment. 
  2. It is necessary to conserve our environment because any imbalance in the environment directly affects the existence of the biotic factors. 
  3. The environment fulfils our basic needs of food, clothing and shelter.
  4.  Biodiversity is the richness of living organisms in nature due to the presence of varieties of organisms, ecosystems and genetic variations within a species. Biodiversity occurs at three different levels. 
  5. The forest conserved in the name of god and considered to be sacred is called as sacred grove. 
  6. The dangerous events that occur many times in the environment and cause human, material, economic and/or environmental loss are called as disasters. e.g. Floods, famines, cyclones, earthquakes, etc. 
  7. The factors affecting environment is natural and artificial factor 
  8. natural or artificial factors affect the environment, they create an imbalance in the ecosystem and can affect the existence of biotic factors in the environment. 
  9. Natural factors such as earthquakes, volcanoes, droughts, etc. can adversely affect the environment 
  10. Pollution affects the environment adversely.  Environmental pollution is a major concern because of the harmful effects it has on the environment as well as on health of humans.  


Class 10 Environmental Management textbooks Solutions

1. Reorganize the following food chain. Describe the ecosystem to which it belongs.Grasshopper – Snake – Paddy field – Eagle – Frog.

Answer: The given food chain can be reorganized in the following manner :

Paddy Field - Grasshopper - Frog - Snake -Eagle  

  1. The given food chain belongs to cropland ecosystem, which is a man-made terrestrial ecosystem. 
  2. This ecosystem is man-engineered and artificially maintained by man by adding energy and planned manipulation. 
  3.  Manmade / artificial ecosystem is less complex as compared to natural ecosystem.  
  4. This ecosystem relies on human efforts for its sustenance Without human intervention and supervision, such man-made ecosystems will disintegrate. 
  5.  In the given ecosystem, paddy crops in the field are primary producers that obtain energy from the sun. 
  6. This energy is transferred to the primary consumers (grasshoppers). Secondary consumers (frogs) feed on grasshoppers, which in turn pass on the energy to tertiary consumers (snakes). 
  7. The apex consumers are eagles


2. Explain the statement- ‘we have got this Earth planet on lease from our future generations and not as an ancestral property from our ancestors.’

Answer: 

  1. The earth was inhabited by older generations before us. We have replaced them.But during their life time, they have created hazardous impact on the earth. 
  2. The industrialization, the quest for more and more natural resources, wars fought, the construction activities such as dams, roads and bridges, extensive deforestation, etc. were their thoughtless activities.
  3. All these activities were for development of mankind. But most of them have destroyed the delicate balance between the producers and different levels of consumers.
  4. Due to ever increasing population of human beings there is shortage of food, clothing and shelter. To procure these basic needs, we have exploited many natural resources causing destruction of the earth’s natural ecosystem.
  5. Now it is our turn to protect the earth as on the same planet the next generations have to survive. We have to hand over the ecosystems of the earth which are in perfect balance to the new generations.
  6. The future generations need a good quality of air, water and land along with all other living organisms.
  7. Due to problems like climate change, global warming, pollution, droughts, etc. 
  8. the environment is impacted, thus in order to keep sustainability of earth, we have to remember that the earth has not been obtained only as ancestral property but we have to save it for future generations


3. Write short notes.

a. Environmental Conservation

Answer: 

  1. Environmental conservation is protection, preservation, management, or restoration of the natural environment. 
  2. It is necessary to conserve our environment because any imbalance in the environment directly affects the existence of the biotic factors. 
  3.  The environment fulfils our basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. 
  4. It constitutes our food chain, thus conserving it is necessary for sustenance of life. However, population explosion has led to overconsumption of natural resources. 
  5. Environmental conservation involves the use of natural resources rationally in order to excessive degradation of environment


b. Chipko Movement of Bishnoi.

Answer: 

  1. In 1731, Amrita Devi Bishnoi along with other 363 Bishnois sacrificed their lives for the protection of ‘Khejri’ trees in Khejarli village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan. 
  2. These trees were being harmed for construction of a new palace. 
  3. Bishnois were dependent on various forest products for their survival.
  4.  Amrita Devi and other Bishnois showed courage by embracing the trees to protect them. 
  5. The Government of India has recently instituted ‘Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award’ for protection of wildlife.

 

c. Biodiversity. 

Answer: Biodiversity is the richness of living organisms in nature due to the presence of varieties of organisms, ecosystems and genetic variations within a species. Biodiversity occurs at three different levels. 

Genetic diversity: It refers to the occurrence of diversity among organisms of same species. e.g. Each human being is different from other. 

Species diversity: It refers to the innumerable species of organisms that occur in nature. e.g. Variety of plants, animals and microbes. 

Ecosystem diversity: It refers to variation in ecosystems present in nature. These ecosystems are formed by the interaction between plants, animals, their habitats and changes in the environment. Each ecosystem has its own biotic (animals, plants, microbes) and abiotic factors. 

In recent times, the biodiversity is threatened and special efforts need to be taken in order to conserve biodiversity.

 

d. Sacred Groves. 

Answer : 

  1. The forest conserved in the name of god and considered to be sacred is called as sacred grove. 
  2. These are in fact ‘sanctuaries’ conserved by the society and not by the government forest department. As it has been conserved in the name of god, it has special protection. 
  3. These clusters of thick forests are present not only in Western Ghats of India but in the entire country.
  4. More than 13000 sacred groves have been reported in India. 


e. Disaster and its management.

Answer: 

  1. The dangerous events that occur many times in the environment and cause human, material, economic and/or environmental loss are called as disasters. e.g. Floods, famines, cyclones, earthquakes, etc. 
  2. Disasters are of two types - natural disasters and man-made disasters.
  3.   The impact of the disasters depends on the duration of disasters or their after - effects. 
  4. Disaster management is the prevention of disasters or making arrangements to face it or at least achieve the abilities to face it.
  5.  It can be divided into two parts  pre-disaster management (e.g. collection of information, staying-alert, etc.) and post-disaster management. (e.g. rescue operations, etc.)


4. How will you justify that overcoming the pollution is a powerful way of environmental management?

Answer

  1. Pollution affects the environment adversely.  Environmental pollution is a major concern because of the harmful effects it has on the environment as well as on health of humans.  
  2. The impact of pollution is severe in developing countries, leading to ill health, death and disabilities in people. Developed countries have powerful ways of environmental management as they have resources as well as technologies to combat pollution.  
  3. Reducing pollution will help reduce production of toxic wastes, thereby saving the cost of disposal of wastes. The ultimate effect of pollution is on the existence of living organisms. 
  4. We as stakeholders of the environment need to come together to overcome pollution.
  5.  It will preserve our precious environmental resources and improve the environment quality. Thus, overcoming pollution is a powerful way of environmental management


5. Which projects will you run in relation to environmental conservation? How?

Answer: Projects on collection of plastic wastes for recycling, conservation of biodiversity, tree plantation programme etc., can be carried out for environmental conservation. These projects can be carried out in the following ways: 

  1. Explaining the adverse effects of use of plastic on environment, disposal and management of waste to people.
  2. Convincing people about the importance of trees and the need to participate in tree plantation campaign.
  3.  Making posters that provide more information about environment. 
  4. conservation, saving energy and other natural resources to raise public awareness. 
  5. Organizing seminars in which environment lists will guide students about environment 
  6. conservation Spreading awareness through Celebrating  earth day and environment protection day.
  7. Tree plantation is one such easier project that can be undertaken to conserve environment. 
  8. The further nurturing of the tree will also be our responsibility. While selecting the tree, the local and sturdy varieties will be selected. Such trees can survive in polluted environment too and even under the pressure of urbanization


6. Answer the following.

a. Write the factors affecting environment.

 Answer:   

  1. The factors affecting environment is natural and artificial factor 
  2. natural or artificial factors affect the environment, they create an imbalance in the ecosystem and can affect the existence of biotic factors in the environment. 
  3. Natural factors such as earthquakes, volcanoes, droughts, etc. can adversely affect the environment. 
  4. artificial or man-made factors like environmental pollution caused due to population explosion, fast industrialization, and indiscriminate use of natural resources, deforestation and unplanned urbanization can harm the environment. 
  5. Biotic and abiotic factors are related to each other in an ecosystem, and if any of the factors is changed or removed, it can affect the entire ecosystem and further affect the environment.


b. Why does the human beings have important place in environment?

Answer: Human life is an integral part of nature and human survival is closely linked with environment. Due to rapid increase in human population and industrialization, humans have over utilized natural resources; leading to degradation of environment.  He never obeys the rules of nature.Phenomena like pollution, urbanization, industrialization and deforestation are exclusively his creations. Hunting and poaching other animals were his contribution to the extinction of many other animals The environment influences the life of human beings and also human beings modify their environment as humans are the apex predators in the food chain. Humans are capable of conserving and improving the quality of nature and thus, can play a major role in maintaining environmental balance. therefore humans  have an important place in the environment.

 

c. Write the types and examples of  biodiversity.

Answer: Biodiversity is the richness of living organisms in nature due to the presence of varieties of organisms, ecosystems and genetic variations within a species. Biodiversity occurs at three different levels. 

Genetic diversity: It refers to the occurrence of diversity among organisms of same species. e.g. Each human being is different from other. 

Species diversity: It refers to the innumerable species of organisms that occur in nature. e.g. Variety of plants, animals and microbes. 

Ecosystem diversity: It refers to variation in ecosystems present in nature. These ecosystems are formed by the interaction between plants, animals, their habitats and changes in the environment. Each ecosystem has its own biotic (animals, plants, microbes) and abiotic factors. 

In recent times, the biodiversity is threatened and special efforts need to be taken in order to conserve biodiversity


d. How the biodiversity can be conserved?

Answer: Biodiversity can be conserved by the following ways : 

  1.  Protecting of the rare species of plants and animals . 
  2. Creating habitats for the animals and plants by establishing National Parks and Sanctuaries . 
  3. Declaration of bioreserves , the areas which are protected through conservation.  
  4. Conservation projects for protecting special species .  
  5. Conservation of all flora and fauna .
  6. Strict observance of the acts and rules .
  7.  Use of traditional knowledge and maintaining record of traditional knowledge

 

e. What do we learn from the story of Jadav Molai Peyang?

Answer: 

  1. Mr. Molai single handedly transformed a barren land into forest.  
  2. It was due to his positive attitude, affection towards nature and hard work, that he could achieve success in planting trees, in over 1360 acres of land.
  3.  From the story of Jadav Molai Payeng we learn that, we all need to make Earth a better place to live for us as well as for the coming generations.
  4.  From his story, it is clear that if a large crowd causes harm to the environment, even a single person, if determined can establish a forest and benefit the environment in great ways. 
  5. His contrbution to the environment was acknowleged by honouring him with the 'Padmashree' award.
  6.  Also, if one person can make such an impact, many people coming together in unity to take efforts for environment conservation can bring about a revolution.


 f. Write the names of biodiversity hot spots.

Answer:

  1.  The Eastern Himalayas (Arunachal Pradesh, Bhutan, Eastern Nepal) 
  2. Indo - Burma (Purvanchal Hills, Arakan Yoma, Eastern Bangladesh) 
  3. The Western Ghats and Srilanka 
  4. Biodiversity hotspots in the world are: Madagascar, Philippines, Sundaland (South east Asia), Brazil’s Atlantic forest, Caribbean island, Eastern Arc and Coastal Forests of Tanzania / Kenya, etc.

 

g. Which are the reasons for endangering the many species of plants and animals? How can we save those?

Answer: Following are the reasons for plant and animal species to become endangered: 

Natural cause:  Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flood, drought, dry and wet famines, etc. 

Man-made causes: 

  1. Over-utilization of resources: It is a major cause for endangering many plant and animal species. Extensive cutting of forest trees, over-grazing, over fishing, etc., lead to extinction of many species.
  2.  Environmental pollution: Pollution of air, water and soil leads to depletion of wildlife. 
  3.  Hunting: Poaching for meat, skin, fur, horns, etc., leads to decline in number of wild animals. 
  4. Destruction of habitats: Due to human activities like construction of dams and reservoirs, buildings, roads, railway tracks, mining activities, etc., the natural habitat of animals get destroyed.
  5. Other causes: Use of plant and animal species for manufacturing pharmaceuticals, perfumes, cosmetics, medicines, etc.  

Endangered animals can be saved by the following ways: 

  • Controlling the pollution can have a positive impact on animals. 
  • Habitats of the species should be protected and human disturbances should be limited. 
  • Use of eco-friendly resources. 
  • Public awareness about the importance and protection of wildlife.


7. What are the meanings of following symbols? Write your role accordingly?

1)

Environmental management textbooks solutions





Answer : The first symbol is for giving the message, “Reduce, reuse and recycle”. This is important mantra for the utilization of natural resources.The first symbol is essential to maintain the natural resources by reusing and recycling them. As far as possible, one should reduce the excessive use of resources by preventing consumerism.


2) 





AnswerSymbol two represents water conservation. Water conservation refers to the act of conserving water with the help of various methods such as rain water harvesting. Conservation of water is essential for maintaining a proper hydrological cycle, ensuring timely rainfall and maintaining the availability of fresh water in rivers and other sources. Water problems persist in many major cities and villages. In villages it results in drought like conditions. It also reflects into loss of agricultural produce. Therefore, the message about saving water or to make judicious use of water should be spread far and wide.


3) 






Answer: The third symbol indicates the use of solar energy.  The solar energy is the renewable energy option which is very easily available in country like India. By using solar energy, we can replace the polluting and exhaustible fuels. Thereby, pollution will also be reduced.


Can you recall?

Q1. What is ecosystem? Which are its different components? 
Answer : 
a. Ecosystem is the basic functional unit used to study ecology
b. Ecosystem mainly consists of two components: 
1. Biotic components. e.g. Producers, consumers, decomposers. 
2. Abiotic components. e.g. Soil, water, air, sunlight, temperature etc. 

Q2. Which are the types of consumers? What are the criteria for their classification? 
Answer: 
 a The different types of consumers are: 
1. Primary consumers (Herbivores) 
2. Secondary consumers (Carnivores) 
3. Tertiary and/ or apex consumers 
4. Omnivores (Mixed consumers) 
b. The criteria for the classification of consumers are mode of nutrition, food requirements, etc. 

Q. 3 What may be the relationship between lake and birds on tree? 
Answer: 
  1. The lake and birds on tree are related to aquatic ecosystem.
  2.  Apart from the terrestrial ecosystem, birds also form a part of aquatic ecosystem. e.g. ponds, lakes,etc.  
  3. This can be explained by the following food chain: Phytoplanktons  Zooplanktons Fishes Birds . 
  4. Phytoplanktons growing in pond are food for zooplanktons.
  5.  These zooplanktons are then eaten by fishes. Birds feed on these fishes. 
  6. According to this food chain, birds are also a part of lake ecosystem. 

Q. 4. What is the difference between food chain and food web? 
Answer: Food chain is a definite sequence of interaction between producers, consumers and decomposers (saprophytes), whereas food web is an network of food chains which are interconnected at various levels forming an intricate web instead of a linear 
chain. 


# Think and Answer

Q. 5 Write the name and category of each of the component shown in picture 
Food chain

Answer: In the given food chain, energy absorbed from the sun by producers (grass/ plants) is converted into biochemical energy. This energy is transported to the primary consumers (grasshopper) who feed on the grass. Secondary consumers (frog) feed on the primary consumers and pass on the energy to the tertiary consumers 
(snake). The apex consumers (eagles) are present at the top of the food chain. Decomposers (fungi, bacteria, etc.) breakdown dead and decaying organic matter to recycle the nutrients back to 
environment. Disruption of any trophic level can create an imbalance in the ecosystem. 

Q. 6 What is necessary to convert this picture into food web? Why? 
Answer:  
  1.  For converting the above food chain into food web, more animals or links that may be present in the terrestrial ecosystem need to be added. e.g. Bluebird, rabbit, rat, deer, tiger, etc. 
  2. It is necessary to include these animals because food web is an intricate network of food chains which are interconnected at various levels. 
  3. For instance, if we include rat, it would be a food source for snake as well as eagle. Similarly, if we include a bluebird, it would feed on grasshopper and the bluebird is eaten by a hawk. 
  4. Thus, the food chain gets inter- connected at various levels, forming a intricate web instead of linear chain. 
 
 
Lets Think. 
Q. 7 A bird building nest on a tree feeds upon the fishes in nearby pond. Whether this bird is part of both i.e. tree as well as pond ecosystem? 
Answer: 
  1.  Yes, the bird becomes the part of both tree and pond ecosystem. 
  2. Birds perched on trees feed upon the fishes in the nearby pond and are thus a part of the pond ecosystem. 
  3.  This bird builds its nest on a tree and hence is also a part of the tree (terrestrial) ecosystem.  The role of bird in pond ecosystem can be explained by the following food chain: 
Pond ecosystem: 
(Producer) - (Secondary consumer) 
(Tertiary consumer)
Algae - Small fishes - Big fishes - Bird

Can you tell?
Q8. What is environment? 
Answer: The physical, chemical and biological factors which influence an organism collectively is called as environment. 

Can you recall? 
Q. 9Which cycles are operated in environment? What is their importance? 
Answer:
  1. The different cycles that operate in environment are water cycle, carbon cycle; gaseous cyclessuch as nitrogen cycle, oxygen cycle; sedimentary cycles such as phosphorus cycle, calcium cycle, iron cycle; etc. [Note: Carbon cycle is a gaseous cycle]
  2. These cycles are important to maintain the cyclic flow of nutrients within an ecosystem. Proper flow of nutrients through the biogeochemical cycles ensures ecological balance. 

Can you recall? 
Q. 10. Which are the types of pollution? 
Answer: The types of pollution are air pollution, water pollution, soil or land pollution, noise pollution, thermal pollution, light pollution and radioactive pollution. 

Q. 11What do we mean by natural and artificial pollution? 
Answer: 
a. The pollution caused due to natural events suchas volcanic eruptions, cyclones, floods, storms,etc., is called as natural pollution. 
b. Pollution caused by manmade activities like deforestation, urbanization, industrialization, etc., is called as artificial pollution. 

 
Q. 12 What will happen in future if animal species continue to go extinct? 
Answer: 
  1.  Humans are constantly interfering with or invading the natural habitats of plants and animals. 
  2. It is one of the major reasons for extinction of animal species. 
  3.  If animal species get extinct, then it directly affects its predators, thereby decreasing the population of its predators too. Eventually, this disrupts the whole food chain. 
  4.  In a food web, different food chains are interlinked i.e., an animal is dependent on another animal for food which is a source of food for many other animals. 
  5. If the extinction of animal species continues with this rate the entire wildlife would be lost and this will degrade the environment.