Active and Passive Transport Difference with Examples Pdf

Active and Passive Transport Difference :

Active and Passive Transport are two different types of transport systems and both are completely different from each other. In this article we explain all their difference between  Active vs Passive  Transport and so that you can distinguish them perfectly in your preparation. Before starting lets know about concepts what Active and Passive Transport and similarities between Active Transport and Passive Transport.

Defination of Active transport

Active transport can be defined as a type of transport that uses energy for movement of solutes against their concentration gradients from the region of lower concentration to the region of higher concentration of solute. 

However, the movement of solutes occurs against the concentration gradient, the cell must expend energy for the process to occur. The transport proteins that act in active transport are carrier proteins, and the presence of channel proteins is not observed, as in passive transport.

Defination of Passive Transport:

Passive transport is the movement of ions, molecules or substances within the cells along with the concentration gradient, without use of Cellular energy. Passive Transport is also known as passive diffusion. There are four types of passive transport : Simple Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Filtration and Osmosis.

Similarities Between Active and Passive Transport  :

Apart from the differences seen, there are also some similarities between Active and passive transport: 

The similarities that we can find between active transport and passive transport are:

  1. Both Active and Passive transport processes correspond to functions that are needed to carry out the process of cellular nutrition.
  2. They are two types of substance transport mechanism across the plasma membrane of cells.
  3. Both processes correspond to the exchange of substances from the inside to the outside of the cell.  
  4. Both processes can occur within the cell to exchange substances between the different organelles of the cell.

Difference between Active and Passive Transport

Difference between Active and Passive Transport

Active Transport Passive Transport
Active transport involves in movement of molecules across the cell membrane, pumping the molecules against the concentration gradient using ATP (energy) is called Active transport. Passive transport involves in the movement of molecules within and across the cell membrane and thus transporting it through the concentration gradient, without using ATP (energy) is called Passive transport.
The movement of molecules is from low concentration to high concentration which means they move against the concentration gradient. The movement of molecules is from high concentration to low concentration, which means they move along the concentration gradient.
For Active transport Energy is required in the form of ATP. For Passive transport No energy is required.
Active transport use ATP to pumps the molecules in upwards directions. In this, the molecules are moved downward directions.
It is a rapid process than passive transport. Active transport comparatively a slow process.
Active transport occurs in one direction (unidirectional). Passive transport is a Bidirectional process.
Active transport is a vital process Passive Transport is a physical process.
It is highly selective. It is partly non-selective
Active transport Affected by temperature. Passive transport Not affected by temperature.
The active transport, carrier proteins are required. The passive transport, carrier proteins are not required.
Metabolic inhibitors stop the active transport. Metabolic inhibitors do not influence passive transport.
Active transport is classified into two categories, like primary active transport and secondary active transport. Passive transport is classified into four categories like osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and filtration
The main aim is to transport all molecules such as proteins, large cells, complex sugars, ions, etc. The main aim is to transport all soluble molecules, including oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, lipids, sex hormones, etc.
Macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrate (sugars), lipids, large cell are few of the materials which are transported by this way. Oxygen, monosaccharides, water, carbon dioxide, lipids are the few soluble materials which are being transported through this way.
Examples of active transport include a sodium pump, glucose selection in the intestines Passive transport occurs in the kidneys and the liver, and in the alveoli of the lungs when they exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.

5 Major Difference between Active transport and Passive Transport :

  1. One of the Major difference between active and passive transport is that active transport moves ions or molecules from lower concentration to higher concentration against the concentration gradient through a semi-permeable membrane with the of Energy while passive transport moves ions or molecules along with the gradient from higher concentration to the low concentration without expenditure of ATP. 
  2. Another Important Difference is active transport requires energy in form of ATP for movements of ions while passive transport, which does not require energy for transport of molecules.
  3. The concentration of gradient is a gradual change in the concentration of Molecules/particles in a solution between two regions and the gradient results when there is an unequally distribution of ions across the cell membrane. So we can say when the movements of the ions occurs against the concentration of gradient then it is an active transport and if it is towards the concentration gradient then it is a passive transport.
  4. Another key difference between active transport and passive transport is that active transport is a highly selective, fast and unidirectional process that allows the accumulation of substances in the cell. This transport is affected by both temperature and metabolic inhibitors. Passive transport is a less selective process, slow and bi-directional process that does not allow the accumulation of substances in the cell. It is also unaffected by temperature or metabolic inhibitors. 
  5. Another Important Active and Passive Transport is In active transport carrier proteins are involved but in Passive transport Carrier proteins are not Involved.

What is active transport?

  1. Active transport is a type of transport of molecules across the plasma membrane in which energy is spent by the cell. 
  2. In the case of active transport, the movement of molecules occurs against their concentration gradients. 
  3. This means that solutes (substances that can be dissolved by a solvent) can pass through the plasma membrane from the region where they are less concentrated to the region where they are more concentrated.
  4. Active transport is a type of transport in which the cell expends energy to move solutes against their concentration gradients.
  5. The sodium-potassium pump is an example of active transport.
  6. Active transport differs from passive transport, as the cell does not use energy in it.

Sodium-potassium pump

  1. The sodium-potassium pump is a best example of active transport in which ions or molecules are pumped against the concentration gradients. 
  2. The concentration of sodium ions (Na+) is higher outside the cell than inside. The concentration of potassium ion (K+) is lower inside the cell than outside.
  3. The Na+ present in the cytoplasm binds to the sodium-potassium pump. ATP (the molecule that supplies the cell with energy) transfers a phosphate group to the protein, a process known as phosphorylation. 
  4. Phosphorylation causes the protein to change its shape. This shape change decreases the protein's affinity for Na+, which is released to the external environment.
  5. The new format acquired by the protein has great affinity with K+, which binds to the protein and promotes the release of the phosphate group. 
  6. By losing phosphate, the protein restores its original shape, which has a lower affinity for K+. K+ is released and the cycle starts again. 
  7. During ion pumping the sodium-potassium pump transfers three sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions pumped into the cell.

What is Passive Transport ?

  1. Passive Transport is a Natural process by which an ion or molecules passes through a cell with a concentration gradient from high concentration to an area of low concentration without the expenditure of energy.
  2. The four different types of passive transport are simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, filtration, and/or osmosis.
  3. Passive transport does not requires energy for movements of compounds across the cell membrane.
  4. The rate of passive transport depends on the permeability of the cell membrane and characteristics of the Cell membrane lipids and proteins.
  5. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane according to the concentration gradient of water across the membrane.

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Last but Not Least about Active and Passive Transport  : 
Now we Learn that Active and passive transport are the two different types of transport systems that transports ion or molecules across the semipermeable cell membrane with or without theexpenditure of energy. Active transport transports molecules or substance against a concentration  gradient using ATP. In primary active transport, ATP is used in form of the energy. Nutrients are transported into the cell with the help active transport. 

Passive transport also transport small, non-polar molecules or substance through the semi-permeable cell membrane along with the concentration gradient and no energy is utilized by this transport system. However, the key difference between active transport and passive transport is their mechanisms of transporting molecules or substance across the membrane.