Solutions for Class 10 Science Part II Chapter 7 - Introduction to microbiology Exercise


Introduction to microbiology chapter 7 Textbook Solutions  :

Students can refer to the following introduction to microbiology chapter 7 textbook solutions for class 10 Science provided below based on the latest curriculum and examination pattern issued by Maharashtra state board. Our subject experts have prepared these  questions and answers for class 10 students. which covers all topics from your textbook so that students can assess themselves on all important topics and thoroughly prepare for their board exams.

We have provided below Introduction to microbiology chapter 7 class 10 notes Science with answers which will help the students to go through the entire syllabus and and practice textbook questions and answers provided here with solutions. You can download in Pdf Format and score high in your board exam you should go thorough all introduction to microbiology chapter 7 Class 10 solutions provided below so that you are able to get more marks in your exams.


Important points to Remember about Introduction to microbiology

  1. Applied MicrobiologyBranch of biology in which study of the enzymes related to some prokaryotes and eukaryotic microbes, proteins, applied genetics, molecular biology, etc. is performed; is called as applied microbiology.
  2.  Natural gases such as  biogas, ethane, methane can be obtained from the microbial process.
  3.  bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB). 
  4. Probiotic products are available in various forms like yoghurt, kefir, sauerkraut (pickle of cabbage), dark chocolate, miso soup, pickles, oils, corn syrup, artificial sweeteners 
  5. Mutant strains are formed by alterations of nucleotides is DNA of micro organisms to suit the needs of the industry.
  6.  Mutant strains are used for producing virus resistant bacterial strains are used in Dairy industry (milk products) so as to avoid the unwanted bacteria and virues attacking and out membering the original ones. 
  7. Now a day, instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in chemical industry. These enzymes are active at low temperature, pH and pressure; due to which energy is saved and erosion-proof instruments are also not necessary. 


1. Rewrite the following statements using correct of the options and explain the completed statements.
(gluconic acid, coagulation, amino acid, acetic acid, clostridium, lactobacilli)
 
a. Process of -- -- -- -- of milk proteins 
occurs due to lactic acid.
Answer: aProcess of coagulation of milk proteins occurs due to lactic acid.
 
b. Harmful bacteria in like -- -- -- in the 
intestine are destroyed due to probiotics.
Answer: bHarmful bacteria in like
clostridium in the intestine are destroyed due to probiotics.
 
c. Chemically, vinegar is -- -- --.
Answer: c. Chemically, vinegar is Acetic acid 
 
d. Salts which can be used as 
supplement of calcium and iron are 
obtained from 
Answer: d. Salts which can be used as 
supplement of calcium and iron are 
obtained from gluconic acid

2.  Match the pairs.
'A' group 'B' group
a. Xylitol 1. Pigment
b. Citric acid 2. To imart sweetness
c. Lycopene 3. Microbial restrictor
d. Nycin 4. Protein binding emulsifier
5. To impart acidity

Answer:

'A' group

'B' group
a. Xylitol 1. To impart sweetbess
b. Citric acid 2. To imart acidity
c. Lycopene 3. Pigment
d. Nycin 4.Microbial restrictor


3. Answer the following.
a. Which fuels can be obtained by microbial processes? Why is it necessary to increase the use of such fuels?
Answer: Natural gases such as  biogas, ethane, methane can be obtained from the microbial process. It is necessary to use or increase this because it is man-made and natural gas so it is eco-friendly as well as cheaper than other fuels and also it is a renewable source and for fuels.methane can be obtained by microbial anaerobic decomposition of urban agricultural and industrial waste. Ethanol, an alcohol is a clean (smokeless) fuel obtained during fermentation of molasses by the yeast-
Saccharomyces.

b. How can the oil spills of rivers and 
oceans be cleaned?
Answer: Spilling of petroleum oil occurs in ocean due to various reasons. This oil may prove fatal and toxic to aquatic organisms. It is not easy to remove the oil layer from surface of water by mechanical method. However, bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have 
the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB). HCB decompose the hydrocarbons and bring about the reaction of carbon with oxygen. CO2 and water is formed in this 
process.

c. How can the soil polluted by acid 
rain be made fertile again?
Answer: Sulphuric acid is present in the acid rain and materials coming out of mines. You know that erosion of metals present in statues, bridges and buildings occurs due to it. Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium spp. and Acidobacillus ferroxidens. Hence, these bacteria can 
control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain.

d. Explain the importance of 
biopesticides in organic farming.
Answer: Some microbes-containing inoculants are produced by process of fermentation. These inoculants are sprayed on seeds before sowing and some of the inoculants are released into plants. Microbes in the inoculants help in plant growth by supplying nutrients. They 
improve the quality of vegetarian food. Solution containing Azotobacter and artificial nitrogenase is used in organic farming. Bacterial and fungal toxins which 
can destroy pests and pathogens can be 
directly integrated into plants with the help 
of biotechnology. Being toxic to insects, 
they do not consume the plants. Similar to 
bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses 
are useful as pesticides. Spinosad, a by-
product of fermentation is a biopesticide.


e. Which are the reasons for increasing 
the popularity of probiotic products?
Answer: 
  • These are also milk products, but contain active bacteria e.g. Lactobacillus, Acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, etc. These microbes maintain the balance of intestinal microorganisms i.e. increase the population of microbes helping the digestion and decrease the population of harmful microbes (ex. Clostridium). 
  • Probiotic products are available in various forms like yoghurt, kefir, sauerkraut (pickle of cabbage), dark chocolate, miso soup, pickles, oils, corn syrup, artificial sweeteners
  • These products form the colonies of useful microbes in alimentary canal and control other microbes and their metabolic activities, improve resistance and lower the ill-effects of harmful substances formed during metabolic activities.
  •  Useful microbes become inactive due to antibiotics; probiotics make them active again. Nowaday, probiotics are used for treatment of diarrhoea and treatment of poultry also.


f. How the bread and other products 
produced using baker’s yeast are 
nutritious?
Answer: Different types of breads are produced from flour of cereals. Dough is formed by mixing of baker’s yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, water, salt and other necessary materials with flour. Compressed yeast is used in commercial bakery industry. It is available in dry, granular form for domestic use. Yeast produced for commercial use contains various useful contents like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, various vitamins, and minerals. Due to this, bread and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutritive. 
 
g. Which precautions are necessary for 
proper decomposition of domestic 
waste?
Answer: It is important  to take precautions for decomposition of domestic waste or household waste . The containers that held pickles, jams, coffee, sugar, salt etc. must be reused. Waste collection, segregation, transportation, and recycling should be completed minutely so that no toxic wastes are produced from the materials.Chemical waste must be kept in a separate bin.Wet waste can be used in compost formation. Segregation of wet and dry waste must be done in the house . Biodegradable waste includes vegetable and fruit peels whereas non-biodegradable waste includes computers, batteries, etc. Biodegradable waste products are used for making manure, which can be used in plant pots, parks, etc

h. Why is it necessary to ban the use of 
plastic bag.
Answer : Plastic bags are a very big problem to the environment. They are mostly made of organic polymers which are nothing but long chains of carbon atoms. These polymers are very stable chemically and hence, cannot be broken down by environmental factors easily. Plastic bags are widely used as they are important industrially and are also cheap

Various reasons to ban plastic bag : 
  1.  Plastic bags pollute not only our water but also our land.
  2. A lot of energy is used in producing these bags .
  3.  Plastic bags do not degrade .
  4.  Plastic bags are toxic.
  5.  Plastic bags are harmful to wildlife and marine life. 
  6. Plastic bags are harmful to human health. 
  7. Plastic bags are not easy to recycle.
  8. Plastic bags clog stormwater drains. Even if we did decide to recycle plastic bags, these materials still end up in oceans and landfills.

4.Complete the following conceptual picture.

Answer: 


5. Give scientific reasons.
a. Use of mutant strains has been 
increased in industrial microbiology.
Answer : Use of mutant strains has been 
increased in industrial microbiology because Mutant strains are genetically improved strains which give higher yields and therefore decrease the cost of the products.Mutant strains are formed by alterations of nucleotides is DNA of micro organisms to suit the needs of the industry. Mutant strains are used for producing virus resistant bacterial strains are used in Dairy industry (milk products) so as to avoid the unwanted bacteria and virues attacking and out membering the original ones. In alcohol industry mutant strains improve the flavour and quality of wine or beer.


b. Enzymes obtained by microbial 
process are mixed with detergents.
Answer: Enzymes obtained by microbial 
process are mixed with detergents because When detergents are mixed with microbial enzymes, they start working more efficiently. The cleaning process takes place at lower temperatures. Therefore, for better results, enzymes obtained by microbial process are mixed with detergents.
 
c. Microbial enzymes are used instead 
of chemical catalysts in chemical 
industry.
Answer: Microbial enzymes are used instead of chemical catalysts in chemical 
industry because Now a day, instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in chemical industry. These enzymes are active at low temperature, pH and 
pressure; due to which energy is saved and erosion-proof instruments are also 
not necessary. Enzymes carry out specific processes; hence unnecessary by-
products are not formed due to which expenses on purification are minimised.


6.Complete the following conceptual picture.

Answer: 


7. Complete the following conceptual picture related to environmental management.
Answer: 


Answer the following.
a. What is role of microbes in compost production?
Answer: Composting is a type of waste which is biodegradable so that it can be broken down into different substances. So here microbes carry out the respiration and get their energy from the waste and hence their survival reason is from waste only and they need this energy to grow the byproduct as Compost. Landfill sites are created by digging deep pits away from residential areas and the biodegradable waste is dumped into it.


b. What are the benefits of mixing ethanol with petrol and diesel?
Answer: Ethanol, an alcohol is a clean (smokeless) fuel obtained during
fermentation of molasses by the yeast-
Saccharomyces.it is  easily available and cheap source.

c. Which plants are cultivated to obtain the fuel?
Answermost popularly used biofuel plants are corn, sugarcane, palm oil, jatropha, soyabean, canola, cottonseed, sunflower and wheat.

d. Which fuels are obtained from biomass?
Answer: fuels obtained from biomass is 
biogas and biodiesel. The biogas is obtained from dung of cattle. The fermentation of cattle dung gives rise to methane. From methane, methanol is obtained. Ethanol is obtained from molasses of sugarcane. Some crops also give ethanol. In some countries, special crops are cultivated for the biodiesel.

e. How does the bread become spongy?
Answer:  breads are produced from flour of cereals. Dough is formed by mixing of baker’s yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, water, salt and other necessary materials with flour. Due to fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast, sugar is converted in to carbondioxide (CO2) and ethanol. Dough rises up due to CO2 and the bread becomes spongy.