Difference Between Active and Passive Transport for Class 11

Difference Between Active and Passive Transport for Class 11 : 

Active Transport Passive Transport
Active transport involves in movement of molecules across the cell membrane, pumping the molecules against the concentration gradient using ATP (energy) is called Active transport. Passive transport involves in the movement of molecules within and across the cell membrane and thus transporting it through the concentration gradient, without using ATP (energy) is called Passive transport.
The movement of molecules is from low concentration to high concentration which means they move against the concentration gradient. The movement of molecules is from high concentration to low concentration, which means they move along the concentration gradient.
For Active transport Energy is required in the form of ATP. For Passive transport No energy is required.
Active transport use ATP to pumps the molecules in upwards directions. In this, the molecules are moved downward directions.
It is a rapid process than passive transport. Active transport comparatively a slow process.
Active transport occurs in one direction (unidirectional). Passive transport is a Bidirectional process.
It is highly selective. It is partly non-selective
Active transport Affected by temperature. Passive transport Not affected by temperature.
The active transport, carrier proteins are required. The passive transport, carrier proteins are not required.
Active transport is classified into two categories, like primary active transport and secondary active transport. Passive transport is classified into four categories like osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and filtration
Macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrate (sugars), lipids, large cell are few of the materials which are transported by this way. Oxygen, monosaccharides, water, carbon dioxide, lipids are the few soluble materials which are being transported through this way.


Important points to Remember about active transport :

  1. Active transport refers to the process in which substances are transported into or out of the cell membrane under the action of energy with the assistance of the carrier against the concentration gradient.
  2. In active transport molecule or ion moves from the low-concentration side of the membrane to the high-concentration side. 
  3. As a result, the concentration of the high-concentration side is further increased, and the substance on the other side becomes less and less, and even all can be transported to the other side.
  4. Transportation against concentration gradient (against chemical gradient).
  5. It requires energy (directly supplied by ATP) or coupled with the process of releasing energy (cooperative transport), and is sensitive to metabolic toxicity;
  6. Active transport requires carrier proteins, which depend on membrane transport proteins; With selectivity and specificity.
  7. The way of actively transporting this substance into and out of cells can ensure that living cells actively select the nutrients needed for respiration according to the needs of life activities, and eliminate the waste produced by metabolism and substances harmful to cells. 
  8. It can be seen that active transportation plays an important role in the completion of various life activities of living cells.
  9. It is very important to maintain the normal life activities in the cell, the transmission of nerve impulses and the maintenance of the osmotic balance of the cell, and the constant cell volume is very important.